News & Editorial Analysis 13 December 2022

News & Editorial Analysis 13 December 2022


The Hindu Analysis

Curbing individualism in public health (Important for GS ll: Welfare Schemes) Page 6

There is a strong tendency in public health to prioritise individual oriented interventions over societal oriented population based approaches, also known as individualism in public health.

This is obvious for problems such as under nutrition, for which individualist solutions such as micronutrient supplementation and food fortification have been proposed as solutions in lieu of sustainable approach such as a strengthening of the Public Distribution System, supplementary nutrition programmes, and the health services.

The Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) is an individualistic response to the problem of hospitalisation expenditure faced by populations. Ideally, the Government needs to ensure health-care facilities to only 3%-5% of the population  to cover all the hospitalisation needs of a population

Similarly in case of COVID 19, instead of focusing on a vaccination programme for the entire population, what was needed was to have primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare facilities to manage cases which needed medical attention, hospitalisation and intensive care (ICU) or ventilator support respectively.

There are at least three reasons for the dominance of individualism in public health. The first is the dominance of biomedical knowledge and philosophy in the field of philosophy public health with a misconception that what is done at an individual level, when done at population level, becomes public health.

The second reason is the aspect of ‘visibility’ of health impacts among the general public which are more visible and appear convincing at individual level, wherein improvements at the population level appear only after a population level analysis.

Third reason is the market’s role and the effect of consumerism in public health practice. 

All forms of individualistic approaches in public health need to be resisted to safeguard its original principles of practice, viz. population, prevention, and social justice.


Why is there friction between the government and the judiciary? (Important for GS ll : Polity) Page 8

A major confrontation is on between the Union government and the Supreme Court over the former’s resentment towards the Collegium system appointments; its grievance against the invalidation of the National Judicial Appointment Commission (NJAC) and its push to have a dominant say in judicial appointments and transfers.

What is the MoP and what is its current status?

The procedure for appointment of judges to the Supreme Court and the High Courts is in accordance with the collegium system.

The Constitution (99th Amendment) Act was passed by Parliament to provide for a NJAC, Which was duly formed by the NJAC Act. On October 12, 2015, the court struck down the NJAC Act and the Constitution Amendment which sought to give politicians and civil society a final say in the appointment of judges of the Highest Courts, with the court maintaining that the 21 ­year ­old Collegium needs a relook

What are the government’s grievances?

The Centre argues that the Collegiums, both at the Supreme Court and the High Court levels, are delaying judicial appointments.

The NJAC was a good law, which was  thwarted by the court.

What is the SC’s response?

The court said the Collegium system, combined with the MoP, is the law as it exists now. The government has either kept Collegium recommendations pending for no reason or it has repeatedly sent back names reiterated by the Collegium.

The court accused the government of not appointing persons who are not “palatable” to it.


RS passes ‘futuristic’ Energy Conservation Bill to further regulate carbon emissions (Important for GS lll: Environment) Page 10

Rajya Sabha passed Energy Conservation (Amendment)  Bill clearing the decks for “mandate use of non-fossil sources”, including green hydrogen, green ammonia, biomass and ethanol for energy and feedstock and establish Carbon Markets in the country.

The Bill aims to bring large residential buildings, with a minimum connected load of 100 kW, within the fold of energy conservation regime.

This will also enhance the scope of Energy Conservation Building Code, amend penalty provisions, increase members in the Governing Council of Bureau of Energy Efficiency and empower the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions to make regulations for smooth discharge of its functions.

However, the Opposition maintained that the bill is ultra vires of the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.


The Hindu Editorial Analysis

POCSO Act

What problems arise as a result of child sexual abuse?

The physical safety, mental health, well-being, and behavioural characteristics of children are all impacted by child sexual abuse. It is a challenging issue.

Amplification As a result of digital technologies: Child exploitation and abuse has increased as a result of mobile and digital technology. Some of the more modern kinds of child abuse that have evolved include internet bullying, harassment, and child pornography.

Despite its failure to curb child sex abuse, the Indian government passed the Protection of Children against Sexual Offences Act 2012 (POCSO Act). There are several ways to describe this.

Low conviction rate There have been just under 32% convictions under the POCSO Act on average over the past five years, and 90% of the cases are still pending.

Despite the POCSO Act’s explicit requirement that the trial and conviction process be completed in one year, it took 16 months for the primary defendant in the Kathua Rape case to be found guilty.

Unfriendly to Children: Difficulties determining the child’s age. laws that prioritise biological age over mental age, specifically.

What problems arise as a result of child sexual abuse?

The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Care and Protection Act, and the Juvenile Justice Act of 2000

Child labour ban and regulation under the Children Marrying Before Age Act of 2016

What provisions of the Constitution are relevant here?

According to the Constitution, every child is entitled to the following rights: the right to a life of dignity; the right to personal freedom; the right to privacy; the right to equality; the right against discrimination; and the right against exploitation (Article 23 & 24).

Every child between the ages of 6 and 14 is entitled to a free public elementary education under the legislation (Article 21 A) The State is required by the Directive Principles of State Policy, and in particular Article 39(f), to ensure that children are protected from being exploited and from being morally and materially abandoned, as well as that they have access to the opportunities and resources they need to develop in a healthy way, in conditions of freedom and dignity.

What problems arise as a result of child sexual abuse?

The creation of kid-friendly online settings and efforts to prevent abuse must be given top priority.

To enable better execution of the legal framework, policies, national strategies, and standards, a comprehensive outreach system that involves parents, schools, communities, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) partners, local governments, police, and attorneys is required.


The Indian Express Editorial Analysis

Energy Conservation Bill

The Energy Saving Act of 2001 encourages energy saving and efficiency.

It makes it possible to control how much energy is used by machinery, home appliances, buildings, and commercial operations.

Energy Conservation Bill

The Energy Conservation (Amendment) Bill’s main clauses are as follows

The bill will call for the use of non-fossil fuels such biomass, ethanol, green hydrogen, and green ammonia.

Creating carbon markets

Bring large residential buildings under the Energy Conservation regime’s purview, modify the sanctions, broaden the membership of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) governing council, and broaden the reach of the Energy Conservation Building Code;

Give the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions the authority to create rules in order to ensure that their duties are completed successfully. creating the regulatory environment necessary to mandate the use of renewable energy, such as green hydrogen, and to create carbon markets.

Significance

Climate Change and the Paris Agreement: Because climate change is a reality, countries around the world are increasing their pledges to climate action. As part of the Paris Pact, a binding international pact on climate change, India made a pledge.

Revised NDCs

India’s most recent Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) states that the country now intends to get 50% of its electricity from non-fossil sources and cut the intensity of its GDP’s emissions by 45% from 2005 levels by 2030. The new Bill will serve as a facilitator for accomplishing the goals and is in keeping with the nation’s obligations.

Market for carbon

The Bill gives the federal government the authority to select a carbon credit trading mechanism.

By establishing the framework for the issuance of carbon credits in exchange for the use of clean technologies, the proposed changes seek to promote the growth of a carbon market.

Businesses can go green by investing in clean technologies, and the associated carbon credits will generate additional money.

Therefore, the suggested changes aim to close a sizable gap in the narrative of climate change regarding the participation of the corporate sector.

Carbon offsets

Each mass that emits one ton of carbon dioxide is eligible for one credit.

As a market-based approach to lowering greenhouse gas emissions, these were developed.

A fixed quantity of credits are given to businesses; these credits go smaller over time.

Any surplus can be sold to another business.

Way Forward

To attract private financing, India must match its public funding flows with its transparently stated energy transition objectives. This entails shifting financial support in favor of renewable energy, requiring SOE (state-owned enterprises) participation in clean energy, and raising the bar for public financing of sustainable energy.

With the upcoming COP and the G20 conference in India the following year, these actions may improve India’s negotiating position. This is especially relevant when considering climate financing coming from the northern hemisphere.

It is a global agreement on climate change that is enforceable by law.

It took the place of the previous climate change agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol.

Since it brings all nations together for the first time to take decisive action to combat climate change and get ready for its effects, the agreement is historic.

At COP 21 in Paris, it was approved by 196 Parties, and it entered into effect in November 2016.

Contributions made at the national level are known as NDCs.

Member nations must propose their own targets that they feel will result in appreciable advancement toward the Paris temperature goal in order to meet the requirements of the agreement.

These goals were formerly known as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).

Once the nation has ratified the agreement, they are designated as NDCs.

Panchamrit approach

The COP 26 conference in Glasgow saw the unveiling of the “Panchamrit” policy.

By 2030, India’s non-fossil energy capacity will reach 500 GW.

By 2030, it will be using 50% of renewable energy.

Between now and 2030, global carbon emissions are anticipated to decline by 1 billion tons.

It will cut its economy’s carbon emissions by under 45%. By 2070, India will have reached its net zero goal.


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