Mains Q & A 17 December 2022
Q1. Describe the Khilafat movement and its significance in the establishment of the Non-cooperation movement. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS I à Modern Indian History – The Freedom Movement
The Khilafat and Non-Cooperation movements were significant turning points in India’s modern history.
Both of these events ushered in a new era of public mobilization and significantly influenced the future of Indian politics.
Despite their divergent paths, both groups were anti-imperialist in nature.
They arose from various problems.
Although the Khilafat issue was not directly related to Indian politics, its anti-imperialist and nationalist impulse was strong. Under Gandhiji’s guidance, these two movements were brought together in 1920-22.
The Khilafat Movement’s Nature:
The Khilafat movement in India emerged from Indian Muslims’ desire to safeguard the institution of the Khalifa in Turkey.
In Islamic tradition, the Khalifa was seen as the Prophet Muhammad’s successor, religious leader, and keeper and defender of Muslim holy sites.
The Allies imposed tough terms on Turkey after it was defeated in the First World War. Turkey was dismantled, and the Khalifa was deposed.
The Khilafat movement was started by Muslims in India to put pressure on the British to be tolerant and preserve the Ottoman Empire’s territorial integrity as well as the institution of the Khalifa.
In early 1919, the Ali brothers (Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali), Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani organized a Khilafat Committee under their direction.
The Khilafat might be viewed as an attempt by the Indian Muslim leadership to reconcile their pan-Islamic and nationalist sentiments.
The Khilafat Movement’s Contribution to the Non-Cooperation Movement’s Formation:
A Khilafat Committee was founded in Bombay on March 20, 1919, under the guidance of prominent Muslim leaders.
They began by taking a moderate stance, limiting their efforts to meetings, petitions, and deputations.
Militants planned to start a non-cooperation movement against the colonial authorities.
On the 23rd and 24th of November 1919, Delhi hosted an all-India Khilafat Conference. During the convention, a request for a boycott of British goods was made.
They also warned to halt any collaboration with the government if Turkey was treated unfairly during the peace process.
Gandhiji was named as the movement’s leader, and he was tasked with leading it forward.
Gandhiji saw a chance to bring Hindus and Muslims together on a common platform for the nationalist movement.
During this time, it was his leadership that allowed the two anti-imperialist factions – nationalist and Khilafat – to come together.
Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement Evaluation:
The Khilafat and non-cooperation movements played a critical role in instilling anti-imperialist consciousness among the Indian people.
Throughout the country, Hindus and Muslims joined forces in the movement, and it was often impossible to distinguish between khilafat and the non-cooperation movement.
Despite the Malabar events, in which Muslim peasants revolted against their predominantly Hindu landlords, killing many of them, Hindu-Muslim harmony remained strong throughout the time.
The importance of combating caste prejudice and untouchability was pushed to the forefront by the non-cooperation movement.
The necessity for social justice was recognized, campaigned for, and later codified in the independent Indian Constitution.
Various parts of the populace were involved in strong anti-colonial movements.
Peasants and laborers, as well as the middle classes in both urban and rural areas, were particularly active at this time.
Gandhiji’s commitment on nonviolence also attracted a huge number of women to the cause.
Thus, under Gandhiji’s guidance, these movements revolutionized Indian politics in a variety of ways.
The movement’s greatest achievement should be attributed to its mobilization of various segments of the population across the country, as well as the instillation of political and social consciousness in them.
The movement was instrumental in bringing urban Muslims into the national struggle.
With the Non-Cooperation Movement, nationalist emotions spread throughout the country, politicizing craftsmen, peasants, students, the urban poor, women, and traders, among others.
The national movement took on a revolutionary aspect as a result of the politicization and mobilization of millions of men and women.
The foundations of colonial rule were two myths. One, that such a rule was in the Indians’ best interests, and two, that it was unbreakable.
The first myth has been debunked by moderate nationalists’ economic critique.
Satyagraha had debunked the second myth through mass protests.
The masses had previously been terrified of colonial rule and its powerful repressive mechanisms.
Q2. Describe why India needs to change to a more sustainable, healthy, and resilient agricultural system in order to accomplish its objective of zero hunger. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS III à Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal rearing.
Food is a common thread that runs across all 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and is essential for meeting overall targets on time.
With one-sixth of the world’s population, India will be vital to meeting the targets.
The SDG India Index 2020-21 was just produced by NITI Aayog, highlighting national and state progress on the SDGs.
The following are some of the key data related to SDG-2, the goal of achieving zero hunger:
In India, 34.7 percent of infants under the age of five are stunted; 40.5 percent of children aged 6 to 59 months are anaemic; 50.3 percent of pregnant women aged 15 to 49 are anaemic; and toddlers aged 0 to 4 are underweight.
India is responsible for a quarter of the world’s hunger.
In India, 4 out of 10 children do not reach their full human potential due to chronic malnutrition or stunting.
According to the NFHS-5, numerous states scored poorly on nutrition indicators.
India’s food system confronts severe impacts of the Green Revolution Pathways to pursue in attaining the targets under SDG-2, in addition to nutritional concerns (Zero Hunger)
Crop diversification should be encouraged, particularly in areas where current practises are environmentally unsustainable.
While Indian agriculture contributes significantly to GHG emissions.
According to the Government of India’s third Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC, agriculture accounts for 14% of total emissions.
In some sections of the country, crop residue burning has become a major issue.
Monoculture and a package of incentives are mostly driving this.
Climate-smart interventions such as conservation agriculture, organic farming, and agro-ecological techniques, for example, can efficiently address environmental problems while also providing food security and nutrition.
Conservation agriculture provides answers to problems like zero-tillage or no-till farming, crop rotation, in-situ crop harvest residue management/mulching, and industrial uses like baling and bio-fuel production through good agronomy and soil management.
Using botanical pesticides, green manuring, biological pest management, and other environmentally friendly activities helps to conserve the environment.
Fortunately, the organic movement is gaining traction in Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, and a few other states.
Changing consumer behaviour is a critical component in transforming Indian food systems, and it is positively correlated with crop and diet diversification.
India’s national nutrition effort, POSHAN Abhiyaan, can play an important role in alleviating persistent malnutrition.
The FAO estimates that 40% of food produced in India is lost or wasted at every stage of the supply chain.
Increased sector profitability and reduced food insecurity, as well as lower GHG emissions, water usage, and environmental degradation, might save India $61 billion by 2050 if it wins the fight against food loss and waste.
Moving to a circular economy will help India achieve the SDGs, such as decreasing food waste by 2030 and increasing resource efficiency.
India’s performance is critical to achieving the global objective of achieving Zero Hunger.
To accomplish the objective of zero hunger, we must restructure our food systems to be more sustainable, nutritious, and resilient.
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