News & Editorial Analysis 23 December 2022
The Hindu Editorial Analysis
Alan Turing, an English computer scientist, claimed that a machine successfully simulates human intelligence (i.e., may lead people to believe it is a human-like intelligence) if it reacts to a query in the same way as a human mind does. It evaluates a machine’s capacity to act intelligently in a manner that is either difficult to distinguish from human behaviour or similar to it.
Intelligent machines (IM)
Contrasting with animal and human intelligence, artificial intelligence refers to the perception, synthesis, and inference of information shown by robots.
The portrayal has always been the key to artificial intelligence, according to Plato, who recognised mimesis (representation) as the essential basis of art (Jeff Hawkins).
Machine versus Man
Can a machine “generate” new things in the situation of extended representation? New technological developments have made an effort to “create”. As seen by the recent excitement surrounding ChatGPT (Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer), a piece of software that can converse with humans, write computer programmes, compose poetry, and perform many other complex activities requiring intellect, artificial intelligence may “create.”
The dialogue-based prototype chatbot ChatGPT, created by AI research company OpenAI, can recognise real human speech and produce extremely complex written content. A machine learning method called Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback is used to train it (RLHF).
In the same way, Google’s LaMDA (Language Model for Dialogue Applications), a cutting-edge technology (Dall E) similar to ChatGPT that can produce images from speech descriptions, works the same way. In general, the aforementioned items learn to mix pre-existing information, such as talks, documents, and images, to improve their inventiveness.
Can a machine conduct research if these capacities are increased? The Ramanujan Machine, a piece of software that generates equations without any supporting data, was released at the start of 2021 by a group of Israeli scientists. To create the theorems, mathematicians then confirm or refute these hypotheses. If not for mathematical theories, more recent frontiers would be hidden in tenebrous fissures.
Srinivasa Ramanujan specialised on such ideas. Ramanujan created more than 3,000 equations between 1904 and 1920, the majority of which were conjectures because he provided no supporting evidence. The majority of Ramanujan’s conjectures have been generalised during the past 100 years, and according to American mathematician and Ramanujan expert Bruce C. Berndt, this provides proof that they are true.
Ramanujan’s “unparalleled ability”
How does Ramanujan compare to the Ramanujan Machine? Consider Ramanujan’s formulas (of which 22/7 is only a rough approximation) in order to understand this.
A modular equation is, in general, any equation in x that is the same as another equation in powers of x, or x n. This equation was the basis for a set of equations that Ramanujan presented in 1914; the answers of the equation were altered to produce decimals with astounding precision.
To create equations for numbers like e and others, the Ramanujan Machine uses a different method. An equation with two unmatched sides, a mathematical structure on one side—like a continuous fraction—and a mathematical constant on the other is used to accomplish this. The software then uses advanced algorithms and computational power to match both sides repeatedly, which identifies a conjecture. Many conjectures have been discovered using this method in recent years.
Ramanujan’s foresight in predicting the consequences of these links between mathematical abstractions—which have been unravelling for more than a century and have produced amazing technological advancements—was commendable.
For instance, elliptic curves are a popular topic in number theory because of the possibility of using their characteristics for safe computer network communication.
Ramanujan made substantial advances in this area by creating a set of equations called class invariants that lead to elliptic curves appropriate for encryption. Years after his death in 1985, Elliptic Curve Cryptography gained widespread acceptance as a safe cryptographic technology.
The discovery of mock-theta functions, which served as his swan song, is another example of his ingenuity. Starting with hypergeometric series, whose subsequent terms generate ratios that follow a pattern, Ramanujan might have found it.
Equations with such fundamental constants have only occasionally been discovered throughout the history of mathematics. The machine can increase the frequency of mathematical achievements by making these discoveries more common and automatic.
Because they can now approximate cogitation, artificial intelligence technologies are expected to speed up operations. Even in the era of artificial intelligence, Ramanujan stands out.
The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
Amendments To The Co-operativ Societies Act
The Multi-State Co-operative Societies (Amendment) Bill 2022 was recently sent by the Lok Sabha to a joint committee of Parliament. The Bill was introduced on December 7. In order to “take away” power from state governments, opposition members claimed that it should be sent to the standing committee.
Why did the bill seek to change the law as it was?
The Multi-State Co-operative Societies Act, 2002 was passed by the Atal Bihari Vajpayee administration and is currently in force. Since then, there has been substantial growth in the cooperative sector.
Cooperation was a division of the Ministry of Agriculture at the time. On July 6, 2021, the government did create a distinct Ministry of Cooperation, and Shah was chosen as the nation’s first Minister of Cooperation.
Following the passage of the Constitution (Ninety-seventh Amendment) Act of 2011, Part IXB of the Constitution was incorporated into the text. Given the addition of the aforementioned Part, the Act must be modified.
Changes to the Act were also necessary as a result of advancements throughout time in order to enhance the cooperative movement in multi-State cooperative organisations.
New merger regulations:
The bill allows “any cooperative society” to elect to combine with an existing multi-State cooperative society through a resolution approved by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting at a general meeting of such society.
Currently, only other multi-state cooperative societies are capable of joining forces to create new multi-state cooperative societies.
In order to implement “electoral modifications” in the cooperative sector, the bill also aims to create a “Co-operative Election Authority.”
According to the proposed amendment, the authority will be made up of a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson, and up to three members chosen by the Center.
Who might be chosen to serve as the authority’s chairperson?
According to the proposed changes, a person is ineligible for appointment if they meet any of the following criteria:
Unless he has experience as an Additional Secretary to the Government of India or another job of a comparable level, the Authority’s Chairperson.
If a candidate for the position of vice-chairperson of the authority is not a joint secretary to the government of india or holds a position of equivalent rank and possesses the required education and work experience, he will not be eligible for appointment.
The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson, or Member of the Authority may be reappointed, and their terms of office are for three years or until they turn 65, whichever occurs first.
What did the 97th Amendment Act of 2011 entail?
Part IXB (The Co-Operative Societies) was inserted to the Constitution by the 97th constitutional amendment.
In Article 19 (1), Part 3 of the Constitution, the ability to establish cooperative organisations is listed as a Right to Freedom.
Part 4 of the Indian Constitution now includes Article 43-B (Promotion of Cooperation Societies), which was inserted as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
A proposed amendment to Section 104 of the Act would increase the severity of some penalties.
“Where the board of directors or executives of the multi-State cooperative society get any illegal benefits while managing the business of such society or utilise any of the society’s assets for personal illegal profits.
The aforementioned directors or officials must be held accountable for recovering and depositing the proceeds of such unlawful gains. They could receive a fine of not less than 5,000 rupees but not less than one lakh rupees, a period of imprisonment of not less than one month but not more than one year, or a combination of the two.
Ombudsman to possess comparable power to a civil court:
The government has suggested designating one or more “Co-operative Ombudsman” positions with geographic jurisdiction to look into member complaints.
Any member of a multi-state cooperative society has the right to file a complaint about their deposits, how the society benefits are equitably divided, or any other matter that could affect their individual rights.
The proposed amendments would require the Co-operative Ombudsman to finish the investigation and reach a conclusion within three months of receiving a complaint.
The society is required to follow any directives made by the Ombudsman during the course of the investigation, and it has one month to comply.
A multi-state cooperative organisation may challenge an Ombudsman decision, and the Central Registrar will determine within 45 days, under the proposed regulations. The appeal must be submitted no later than one month after the Ombudsman’s ruling.
If the Central Registrar is convinced that the society was prevented from filing the appeal in time by sufficient cause after a month, he may take the appeal under consideration.
In civil court, the Cooperative Ombudsman would have the authority to issue summonses and carry out investigations.
Money to help struggling cooperative societies:
A new section 63A is also proposed to be added to the main Act for the “creation of the Co-operative Rehabilitation, Reconstruction and Development Fund” in order to aid in the recovery of “sick multi-State cooperative organisations.”
It is also recommended to add a new section 70A pertaining to “concurrent audit” for multi-state cooperative organisations having an annual turnover or deposit over the ceiling set by the Central Government.
Information officer for cooperatives:
The Center has also suggested including language that would facilitate the “appointment of a Co-operative Information Officer” in order to educate society members on the management and operations of multi-state cooperatives.
According to several arguments, cooperative societies should not be viewed as state subjects:
The opposition’s criticisms of the center’s proposal included some that cooperative societies are a matter for the government.
Cooperative societies are covered in Entry 32 of the State List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. Entry 32 of the State List deals with the incorporation, regulation, and winding up of businesses other than those on List I, universities, unincorporated commercial, literary, scientific, religious, and other organisations and groups, as well as cooperative societies.
Cooperative societies are explicitly excluded from the Center’s scope according to Entry 43 of the Central List in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.
Entry 43 of the Central List states, “Incorporation, regulation, and winding up of trade corporations, including banking, insurance, and financial businesses, but excluding cooperative societies.”
In order to maintain the social capital that serves as the backbone of the country and to promote collectivism, cooperatives are crucial. Cooperatives are the most effective approach to uphold the principles of democracy and collectivism.
Massive social networks, like those created by cooperatives, would make it easier to build and use social capital, and the more social capital there is, the more development potential there is.
To sustain a positive center-state relationship, state government interests and authority should not be jeopardised.
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