#1. . “The Peninsula mostly consists of relict and residual mountains” like: 1. Aravali hills 2. Nallamala hills, 3. Javadi hills 4. Veliconda hills
#2. Consider the following statements: 1. The longitudinal extent between the eastern and the western side of India is about 30 degrees. 2. The north-south (latitudinal) extent of India is greater than its east-west (longitudinal) extent.
The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is roughly 30 degrees, whereas the actual distance measured from north to south extremity is 3,214 km, and that from east to west is only 2,933 km. Hence both statements 1 and 2 are correct. From the values of longitude, it is quite discernible that there is a variation of nearly 30 degrees, which causes a time difference of nearly two hours between the easternmost and the westernmost parts of our country. India is away from the equator. So, the lines of longitude come nearer and the East-West distance becomes less than the North-South distance. The distance between any two lines of longitude is maximum at the equator and goes on decreasing as one goes from the equator to the poles. The distance between lines of latitude remains the same at all latitudes.
#3. Shevaroy hills forms the part of
Shevaroy Hills are a towering mountain range (1620 m) near the town of Salem, in Tamil Nadu state. They form part of the southern ranges of the Eastern Ghats System. Shevaroys cover an area of 400 square kilometres (99,000 acres), with plateaus from 4,000–5,000 feet (1,200–1,500 m) above sea-level.
#4. With reference to Eastern and Western Ghats, consider the following statements: 1.Average elevation of Eastern Ghats is lower in comparison to Western Ghats 2.The coastal area of Eastern Ghats is narrower in comparison to Western Ghats
The Peninsula is flanked on the one side by the Eastern Ghats where average elevation is about 610 metres and on the other by the Western Ghats where it is generally from 915 to 1,220 metres, rising in places to over 2,440 metres. Between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip, while between Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, there is a broader coastal area. The southern point of plateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet. The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the Western Ghats.
#5. The ‘Malda fault’ separates:
The northern boundary of the Peninsular Block may be taken as an irregular line running from Kachchh along the western flank of the Aravali Range near Delhi and then roughly parallel to the Yamuna and the Ganga as far as the Rajmahal Hills and the Ganga delta. Apart from these, the Karbi Anglong and the Meghalaya Plateau in the northeast and Rajasthan in the west are also extensions of this block. The northeastern parts are separated by the Malda fault in West Bengal from the Chotanagpur plateau.
#6. The Nilgiris along the west coast are relatively tectonically stable as compared to the Himalayas; but, still, debris avalanches and landslides occur though not as frequently as in the Himalayas, in these hills. Why? 1.Many slopes are steeper with almost vertical cliffs and escarpments in the Western Ghats and Nilgiris. 2.Mechanical weathering due to temperature changes and ranges is pronounced in this region. 3.They are mostly made up of sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated and semi- consolidated deposits. 4.They receive heavy amounts of rainfall over short periods.
The debris avalanches and landslides occur very frequently in the Himalayas because the Himalayas are tectonically active. They are mostly made up of sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated and semi-consolidated deposits. The slopes are very steep. Compared to the Himalayas, the Nilgiris bordering Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and the Western Ghats along the west coast are relatively tectonically stable and are mostly made up of very hard rocks; but, still, debris avalanches and landslides occur though not as frequently as in the Himalayas, in these hills. Why? Many slopes are steeper with almost vertical cliffs and escarpments in the Western Ghats and Nilgiris. Mechanical weathering due to temperature changes and ranges is pronounced. They receive heavy amount of rainfalls over short period.
#7. Consider the following: 1.Block Mountains 2.Fold Mountains 3.Residual Mountains
The mountains which are subjected to weathering and erosion for a long time, are lowered down and are called Relief or Residual mountains. The mountains of the Western Ghats, the Aravalli Mountain and the Parasnath mountain of Bihar belong to this type. Aravalli is also the oldest fold mountains. Aravalli :Old Fold as well as Residual mountains
Himalaya :New Fold mountains
Western Ghats :Block as well as Residual Mountains.
#8. Consider the following statements: 1. The Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation to the Eastern Ghats. 2. The Western Ghats are less continuous than the Eastern Ghats. 3. The average height of Western Ghats increases from north to south.
The Western Ghats in the west, and the Eastern Ghats in the east border the Deccan Plateau from both
The Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation. Hence statement 1 is correct. They are
also more continuous than the Eastern Ghats. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
Their average elevation is about 1,500 m with the height increasing from north to south. Hence,
statement 3 is correct.
‘Anaimudi’ (2,695 m), the highest peak of Peninsular plateau is located on the Anaimalai Hills of the
Most of the Peninsular rivers have their origin in the Western Ghats.The Eastern Ghats comprising the discontinuous and low hills are highly eroded by rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, etc. Some of the important ranges include the Javadi hills, the Palkonda range, the Nallamala hills, the Mahendragiri hills, etc. The Eastern and the Western Ghats meet each other at the Nilgiri hills.
#9. The Western Ghats are locally known by different names. In this context, consider the following pairs: Local name-Region 1. Sahyadri : Maharashtra 2. Nilgiri : Tamil Nadu 3. Anamalai : Karnataka
The Western Ghats are locally known by different names such as Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Nilgiri hills in Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala. The Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation and more continuous than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is about 1,500 m with the height increasing from north to south. ‘Anaimudi’ (2,695 m), the highest peak of Peninsular plateau is located on the Anaimalai Hills of the Western Ghats followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) on the Nilgiri hills. Most of the Peninsular rivers have their origin in the Western Ghats. Hence option (1 and 2 only) is the correct answer.
#10. With reference to the geographical extent of India, consider the fo observations: 1.The difference between extreme latitudes is around 29Â° while the dif between extreme longitudes is around 32Â° 2.The length of India’s coastline is approximately half of the land border.
Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between l 8°4’ and 37°6’ north, longitudes 68°7’ and 97°25’ east and measures abo km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of above km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Island Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.
#11. Consider the following statements about the Shola Grassland: 1.Shola forests are predominantly found in the Eastern Himalayas 2.They have short life and take a short time from germination to reach maturity
First statement is incorrect because Shola grassland is found in the Western Ghats. Shola grasslands are confined to the high altitude (>1700 m) in the Western Ghats and interspersed with tropical forests. Shola grasslands are maintained by fire and frost. The species of Nilgiri Tahr is found only in the shola grasslands and nowhere else in the world.
#12. Consider the following pairs: Hill-RangeLocation 1.Kaimur Hills: Vindhyas 2.Mahadeo Hills: Satpura 3.Maikala Range :Eastern Ghats
The southern part of the Vindhyan Range up to Katangi is called Bhander Range. Beyond this point the escarpment enclosing the land-locked valley of Sirampur and the hill range in continuation is called the Kaimur Range.
The Mahadeo Hills are a range of hills in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. The hills form the central part of the Satpura Range.
The Maikal Hills are range of hills in the state of Chhattisgarh India. The Maikal Hills are an eastern part of the Satpuras in Kawardha District of Chhattisgarh.
Hence, pairs 1 and 2 are correctly matched.
#13. Consider the following statements regarding Western Ghats. 1.Western Ghats is one of the eight hotspots of biological diversity in the world. 2.Western Ghats is older than the Himalaya mountains. 3.The peak of Anamudi in Tamil Nadu is the highest peak in the Western Ghats. 4.Western Ghats traverses through only five states in India
Western Ghats traverses the states of Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Hence, statement 4 is not correct.It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight hotspots of biological diversity in the world. Hence, statement 1 is correct.According to UNESCO, the Western Ghats are older than the Himalayas. Hence, statement 2 is correct.Anamudi is a mountain located in Ernakulam district and Idukki district of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the highest peak in the Western Ghats and in South India. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.Hence, option (1 and 2 only) is the correct answer.
#14. Consider the following pairs of hills with their states: 1. Khandadhar-Odisha 2. Biligiriranga- Karnataka 3. Lushai- Assam
Lushai hills are mountain range in Mizoram and Tripura states of India.
The hills have been in news for various mining activities and environmental concerns.
#15. Which one of the following pairs of States of India indicates the easternmost and westernmost State ?
The mainland of India, extends from Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south and Arunachal Pradesh in the east to Gujarat in the west.
#16. Consider the following statements and choose the correct ones: 1. There is a variation of nearly 30 degrees, which causes a time difference of nearly two hours between the easternmost and the westernmost parts of our country. 2. Chai Bagaan time or tea time is a reference to an informal practice followed in tea gardens in Assam which is an hour ahead of IST
There is a variation of nearly 30 degrees, which causes a time difference of nearly two hours between the easternmost and the westernmost parts of our country. While the sun rises in the northeastern states about two hours earlier as compared to Jaisalmer, the watches in Dibrugarh, Imphal in the east and Jaisalmer, Bhopal or Chennai in the other parts of India show the same time.
Bagaan time or tea time is a reference to an informal practice followed in tea gardens in Assam which is an hour ahead of IST.
#17. Residual mountains are formed as a result of erosion of an existing elevated area. Which of the following hills are residual hills or mountains? 1. Aravallis 2. Satpura hills 3. Javadi hills
The weathering and different agents of erosion – rivers, winds, glaciers, etc. are constantly acting on the earth’s crust. This process of erosion depends on the shape and structure of the rocks. Due to the agents of erosion, the softer rocks of the upland are eroded much more rapidly than the areas of harder rock. After thousands of years, soft rocks are worn down into the sand and the hard rocks are left standing up in the area that has been reduced in height. These are called residual mountains. The residual mountains are also called relict mountains. Examples of Residual Mountains in India are the Nallamala hills, Mahendragiri hills, the Aravalli hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, and the Palkonda range. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
#18. Arrange the following hills of Eastern Ghats from North to South: 1. Shevroy Hills 2. Nagari Hills 3. Nalamalla Hills 4. Palani Hills
#19. Which among the following is/are reasons responsible for Western Ghats receiving more rainfall during summer monsoon in comparison to Eastern Ghats? 1. Continuous expanse of Western Ghats. 2. South west monsoon winds being parallel to Eastern Ghats while they are transverse to Western Ghats. 3. Dense vegetation over Western Ghats.
Statements 1 and 2 are correct: Due to continuous nature of Western ghats against the Eastern Ghats
which comprise of isolated hills, Western Ghats provide a better barrier to monsoon winds.
Similarly the abrupt wall like rise of Western Ghats forces the monsoon winds to ascend and cause
heavy rainfall in the windward side.
Additionally, the Arabian Sea branch hits the Western ghats in perpendicular direction. On the other
hand Bay of Bengal branch remains parallel to Eastern Ghats in Tamil Nadu which does not receive
much rainfall from south west monsoon.
Statement 3 is not correct: As distribution of rainfall in India is mainly orographic in nature, it is
decided by the relief features, and not the vegetation.
#20. Consider the following hills with states where they are located: 1.Dafla Hills--Arunachal Pradesh 2.Mishmi Hills--Odisha 3.Nallamala hills--Andhra Pradesh
Mishmi Hills are on the Northeastern tip of India, in central Arunachal Pradesh. They are also a part of Shan-Malaysia plate. Dafla Hill is a tract of hilly country on the border of western Arunachal and Assam occupied by an independent tribe called Daphla. Nallamala hills are located in the Eastern Ghats in eastern Andhra Pradesh.
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