Mains Q & A 26 December 2022
Q1. Why are crimes against women so prevalent in India? If the government wants to create environments where women are safer, it needs to evaluate its policies and better coordinate its efforts. Analyse. (250 words) (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS I Women Empowerment
The most recent National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) statistics paint a bleak picture of steadily increasing rape cases. In 2019, 32,033 rape offences were registered in India. This suggests that every day, at least 88 women were raped. Three heinous atrocities against women were reported around the nation in the previous week.
These terrible, unrelated instances all demonstrate that women in India continue to face danger. Even though the gang rape in Delhi in 2012—which prompted stronger laws—has long since passed, terrible sexual assault news continue to astound the nation.
Statistics on crimes against women:
Up from roughly 378,000 in 2018, 400,000 incidents of crimes against women were reported in 2019. Only 10% of crimes against women and children are committed by women. A shocking 30% of rape cases result in convictions.
India has a history of oppressing women:
India’s culture is quite patriarchal. Popular culture encourages men and boys to mistreat, harass, and even rape women in order to “tame” and “teach” them a lesson. It also makes a connection between sexual assault and masculinity.
Violence against Dalit women is one example of how gender and caste violence occurs. The purpose of raping a Dalit woman is to degrade and punish her, as well as her family and society. The intention is to highlight the lack of ability of Dalit men and the greater Dalit community to defend “their” women.
Justice system According to sociological study, the criminal justice system frequently just restructures an illicit system. Rape victims, for instance, are regularly pressured into entering into an illegal “compromise” and become belligerent in court; if they refuse, they run the risk of being injured or even killed.
Rather than receiving justice, victims were required to respond to a series of pointless and humiliating questions.
Home invasions: The majority of crimes are still conducted in private houses, and the majority of victims are sexually attacked by persons they are familiar with, such acquaintances or relatives.
Lack of preventative actions When a crime against a woman is highlighted, the question of how to prevent future crimes of the same nature is never raised.
A change in the law that will make women safer would be:
State governments must identify locations with high crime rates and implement additional safety measures there, and law enforcement must move quickly to apprehend offenders.
When discussing eradicating patriarchy and the power systems that endanger the lives of women, men and young boys must be taken into account.
Filling Gaps in Justice Delivery: The inability to make a police complaint is one of the system’s most fundamental faults in terms of how justice is delivered. Therefore, in the criminal justice system, reporting, investigation, and victim-support mechanisms must be given more focus than sentence and punishment.
In this case, it is necessary to adhere to the following safety precautions:
Without fear, a victim will come forward with information.
Police should carry out a thorough inquiry.
the trial’s victim’s security.
Facilitate testimony as quickly and easily as possible.
Allocating funds and increasing up the apparent enforcement of the law
Sensitisation At a Broader Level: Despite the death penalty’s widening application, little has been done to combat prejudice in society.
Staff members of the judicial system must be made more sensitive in order to counteract societal stigmas against sexual offences, but society as a whole must also be made more sensitive.
Protection of the victim is necessary to ensure their safety throughout the process.
In recent years, crimes against women have increased. In all cases, women’s safety must come first if society is to advance. It is disgusting how much violence there is against women in India, and it doesn’t seem to be getting any better. Violence against women is prohibited by local legislation, yet men cannot be made to respect women by law. The rule that “stronger people don’t drive others down; they help them up” must be adopted by society. India still has a long way to go, but 2012 marked a significant improvement in how the State and society perceived the epidemic of sexual violence.
Q2. Consider the impact of the recently established Production Linked Incentive (PLI) plan on the competitiveness of the Indian textile sector. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS II Government Policies and Interventions
To increase the competitiveness and export focus of the textile industry, the government launched the Production Linked Incentive programme. The government created the initiative with the goal of making significant technological advancements in the textile and synthetic fibre industries. 10,683 crores are the entire budgeted outlay for it.
Features of the Production-Linked Incentives Program:
The project aims to support businesses who contribute funds to the manufacturing of 64 specific goods. The product lines consist of 10 technological textile segments or pieces, 14 textiles made of man-made fibres, and 40 garments made of man-made fibres.
The incentive will be available for five years after the first year of post-investment activity during the two-year investment term.
The idea includes two different kinds of investments. The first mandates that a facility must have a minimum annual revenue of 600 crores and a minimum investment of 300 crores in plant, machinery, equipment, and civil works before it can begin operations.
As long as the company generates revenues of at least 200 crore, the second is for at least 100 crore. As a result, the return is influenced by both investment and turnover.
For the first year, the incentive would start at 15% of the turnover for the higher investment plan and at 11% for the lower turnover plan, according to the government. Over the following four years, the incentive for both programmes would steadily decrease by 1% annually.
Investments in Tier-3 and Tier-4 municipalities, rural areas, and aspirational districts would also receive priority.
A result of the PLI programme that is positive:
Imports of clothes made of synthetic fibres jumped 39% over the previous year, while imports of yarn, textiles, and cosmetics rose 16%.
Most man-made fibres are now offered in India at rates that are competitive with those found elsewhere because to the government’s recent reduction of the anti-dumping tariff on viscose staple fibre and purified terephthalic acid.
With an incentive to invest in production, it is projected that India’s output of value-added products made of man-made fibres will rise, reducing imports, particularly of clothes and fabric made of man-made fibres from nations like China and Bangladesh.
According to the government, the programme will contribute to the creation of 7.5 lakh employment and $19,000 crore in new investments.
It’s anticipated that this will encourage businesses to increase their capacity and make fresh investments in a small number of product lines.
Once the clothing is made available at prices that are competitive on the global market, multinational retail businesses with presence in India who currently purchase apparel made of man-made fibres from other nations are expected to start purchasing from India.
Cotton fabric is not taken into account in this strategy. The scheme may have had an effect, according to industry participants, as cotton shipments from India decreased 18% in 2017.
Because the minimum investment is either Rs 100 crore or Rs 500 crore, it often only rewards major players.
A distinct ministry will be responsible for directing each PLI plan. It will then change into a bureaucracy with hydra heads after that.
The market share of homegrown businesses does not look good. In such circumstances, this tactic might be more advantageous to foreign businesses than domestic ones.
In India, many people take involved in each stage of the manufacturing process. This suggests that the requirement of investing Rs 500 crore in greenfield projects would be very challenging to meet and should be reduced, as it has been for many other enterprises.
Maintaining a growth rate of 50% yearly while increasing machinery investment and market penetration over time would be challenging.
It would be intriguing to look at the items and the eligibility standards that are disclosed in the final plan in order to achieve actual growth for the industry, even though the government is carefully studying the various industry representations to guarantee the success of the scheme.
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