Mains Q & A 30 December 2022
What does “inclusive growth” mean? What are the main obstacles to inclusive growth, and how might they be solved in the current environment? Explain. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS III Indian Economy
The idea of inclusive growth emphasises fair growth for all societal sectors. This necessitates making sure that the benefits of growth and development also benefit the underrepresented and disadvantaged groups. Inclusion has several distinctive aspects. Social exclusion, discrimination, immigration restrictions, ceilings on human development, lack of access to finance and insurance, and corruption are a few examples of inequalities that serve as sources of inequality and limit the likelihood of economic advancement for some segments of the population, thereby maintaining poverty.
Significant roadblocks to inclusive growth:
One of India’s many difficulties is the struggle against poverty. In India, ending poverty is typically only seen as a long-term objective. The spread of the middle class’s influence will cause poverty alleviation to move more quickly than it did in the past 50 years.
Furthermore, it is intended that a better emphasis on education, the distribution of governmental positions, and the empowerment of women and other members of economically disadvantaged groups will all help to lower poverty.
In order to address the issue, government programmes should prioritise removing both poverty and unemployment (which in recent decades has driven millions of poor and unskilled people into urban areas in search of employment). The growth of public sector firms, the inclusion of minorities in government, and other challenges should all be supported through these programmes, among other things.
We have 550 million young people under the age of 25 who make up a workforce that is ready for the global market. This group must therefore be the centre of all we do going forward. We must give them access to food, education, and employment opportunities in order for them to develop.
As incomes rise, the public is calling for improvements in the provision of important public services. The provision of water and power, education, law enforcement, sanitization, roads, and public health are among these advancements. As services have become more readily available physically, quality issues have become more important.
Increased inclusivity while maintaining rapid growth: India’s primary medium-term policy challenge is maintaining rapid growth while expanding its advantages, not raising growth from 8 to 10 percent. This is caused, among other things, by growing gaps between urban and rural areas, developing and underdeveloped states, and skilled and unskilled workers.
Although it might not be progressing as quickly as we’d like, expansion occurs daily in emerging nations like India. Roads exist, but more are required. The infrastructure, facilities, and energy all need to be upgraded.
Excellence: Since only the top 5 or 10% of our governance, services, and education are actually of the greatest calibre, we must all cooperate to raise standards everywhere.
Equity: We need to guarantee that everyone has access to the finest employment, educational institutions, medical services, and other resources.
Regional disparities must be eliminated for women to be empowered and for society to flourish. Despite the government’s efforts to empower women by providing special reservations, India’s progress for women has not yet caught up with hopes for inclusive growth.
What must be done to overcome these obstacles:
To reduce inequality and poverty, a comprehensive approach must be developed.
It is crucial to take bold action, such creating laws to advance education, health, and nutrition.
The way that income is distributed throughout the economy will be impacted by changes to the labour market and direct taxes.
It is necessary to assess the cost efficiency of policies like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), which guarantees 100 days or more of employment at a government-set rate.
Widespread adjustments are required, such as the use of GPS tracking and the activation of vigilance committees, to stop the PDS’s leaks.
Government organisations must conduct research to compile a list of “best practises” for carrying out government programmes.
Additionally, specialised programmes are required to aid in the reintegration of minorities and other marginalised groups, such as the poor from lower castes.
Each of these factors needs to be taken into account if inclusion is to be realised. Even if it will take time, it is crucial to change institutions and mindsets. Awareness-building about empowerment and inclusivity is crucial. Our inclusive growth approach should prioritise reducing poverty, and there has been some progress in that direction.
Q2. In addition to satellites and drones, India’s High Altitude Pseudo Satellites (HAPS) provide persistence and adaptability for both economic and defence purposes. Elaborate. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS III Science and Technology
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), a state-owned aerospace and defence business, is collaborating with a start-up in Bengaluru to develop the first-ever High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS), which will considerably improve India’s military strike capabilities. A 700 crore project is involved.
Overview of the High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) concept:
From a height of 70,000 feet, contemporary unmanned aircraft systems known as HAPS continuously patrol the terrain below for two to three months.
Unmanned aerial vehicles and conventional satellites will be linked by the solar-powered network (UAVs).
No other nation has yet to create the revolutionary project.
HAL has already started the design process, and HAPS will be in use by 2024–2025.
Using HAPS for non-military objectives:
Telecom and distant sensing: Launching HAPS is less expensive and more effective. Using Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) technology, these satellites may be controlled from any location and have potential for both commercial and military telecommunication and remote sensing.
HAPS makes it considerably simpler to establish communication zones off the grid or at sea.
HAPS may also be more advantageous and useful than satellites, terrestrial infrastructures, and remotely piloted aircraft systems at a reasonable cost (RPAS).
During natural catastrophes, it can be employed in HADR (Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief) operations.
Applications of HAPS in the field of defense:
These unmanned aircraft, which could be balloons, airships, or planes, are permanently positioned to offer a variety of ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) possibilities. This eliminates the performance and capability restrictions on satellites.
Using the Combat Air Teaming System (CATS) drone, a deep-penetration aerial attack system, a fighter pilot can launch missiles or swarms of drones into hostile territory to destroy targets while staying within the safety of national borders.
The stealth drones can carry up to four conventional weapons, like bombs and cruise missiles that can demolish runways, in their cargo bays.
The airborne vehicle may travel 350 km/h into a hostile region while being piloted by a “mother ship,” a light combat aircraft (LCA), drop its missile, and then return to base.
When CATS is in alignment, HAPS can provide still photos and live video feeds to the soldiers participating in assault missions.
These unmanned stratospheric vehicles have been in development since the 1990s, but recent technological advances have accelerated the process, allowing the most recent iterations to reach advanced levels in terms of payloads, operations, and capabilities. The most recent advancements in aerospace technology, high-altitude pseudosatellite (HAPS) platforms, have the power to completely transform near-space operations.
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