News & Editorial Analysis 10 January 2023
The Hindu News Analysis
1 – India-Brazil Relations:
GS II Topic International Relations
On January 9, 2023, Prime Minister Narendra Modi expressed his concern over the riots that had started in Brasilia after supporters of the former President Bolsonaro attacked the National Congress, the presidential residence, and the Supreme Court of Brazil.
For five centuries, Brazil and India have been partners.
During his expedition to India in 1500, Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares got aground and found Brazil.
To get to Goa, he travelled through Brazil. Because of this, there were Portuguese connections between Brazil and India as well as a colonial interchange of various cattle and crops.
India and Brazil changed their behaviour during the Cold War to resist the superpowers’ hegemony over the international system (US and USSR). For instance, both nations were against the Non-Proliferation Treaty’s adoption in 1967. (NPT).
Brazil and India’s strategic alliance, which was formed in 2006, has been stronger as a result of their close cooperation in the BRICS, IBSA, G4, G20, and more international framework of the United Nations.
Along with Germany and Japan, Brazil and India fought to create a multipolar world in which powerful emerging nations could make decisions about international law and democratise institutions. These countries also desired permanent seats on the UN Security Council.
Both nations played a crucial role in the formation of the Global South or South-South cooperation.
India’s strategic autonomy approach to international affairs complements Brazil’s reciprocal multilateralism plan.
India’s largest trading partner in the entire LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean) region is Brazil.
However, the $8 billion in bilateral trade each year between the two nations is pitiful.
In 2018, Brazil and India each made investments of approximately $1 billion and $6 billion, respectively.
Brazil and India signed a “Defence Cooperation Agreement” on a bilateral basis in 2003. In particular, it calls for cooperation in the areas of R&D, acquisition, and logistical support when it comes to defense-related issues.
A “Joint Defence Committee (JDC)” has been established and regularly meets within the parameters of the agreement.
Harmony between cultures:
In Brazil, Indian philosophy, performing arts, and culture have a devoted following.
In Brazil, there is a sizable following of both yoga and ayurveda. ABRA, a nonprofit organisation, with chapters in nine different Brazilian states and members all throughout the country.
In Brazil, the government and NGOs are promoting Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolent ideology among students, young people, and law enforcement.
Brazil and India’s relationship has largely stayed stable. But recently, a few minor problems have surfaced.
Brazil has complained to the World Trade Organization about New Delhi’s payments to sugarcane growers.
The greatest producer and exporter of sugar in the world, Brazil, asserts that Indian subsidies are against the norms governing international trade.
China is already Brazil’s largest trading partner. India finds it challenging to compete with China’s financial might.
The BRICS group as a whole has great growth potential, but it has also drawn criticism for lacking a unifying objective.
In contrast to Brazil, which has disputed climate change science, India is committed to halting global warming. As a result, India and Brazil have different perspectives on how to collaborate in this industry.
How to Continue:
There are numerous opportunities for cooperation between Brazil and India. Examples include revising the Strategic Partnership Action Plan, the Bilateral Investment Treaty, MLATs on crime, agreements to avoid double taxation, the production of bioenergy or ethanol, cybersecurity, health, mining, oil and gas exploration and investment, and animal husbandry.
The Social Security Agreement (SSA), which Brazil and India signed in March 2017, will facilitate corporate operations and promote investment flow by enabling investments in each other’s pension systems.
The oldest, most sophisticated, and most effective ethanol producing systems in the world are thought to be found in Brazil. At a time when India imports more than 4 million barrels of crude oil per day, other energy sources are urgently needed.
India and Brazil could work together to transition from fossil fuels to ethanol in order to meet India’s energy demands.
There are problems with the infrastructure, universal education, and health. India and Brazil can create policies to address these problems with the aid of the IBSA and BRICS, which are significant venues.
2 – Address of Governor:
GS II Topic Parliament related issues
Governor R.N. Ravi of Tamil Nadu left out references to Periyar, the Dravidar Kazhagam’s founder, B. R. Ambedkar, past Chief Ministers K. Kamaraj and C. N. Annadurai, as well as the “Dravidian model” of administration, which was referenced in the 65th paragraph of the speech’s printed version.
Address of the Governor:
The Governor must address both Houses when they are all present at the start of the first session after each general election to the Assembly and the first session of every year, as required by Article 176(1) of the Indian Constitution, to inform the Legislature of the grounds for its summons.
In addition to a brief synopsis of the session’s agenda, the Governor’s Address contains a summary of the government’s successes from the previous year, a discussion of their approach to pressing domestic concerns, and a list of their accomplishments.
When is the Governor’s address discussed:
On the first day that it is discussed in the House, a copy of the Governor’s Address is put on the table.
The Business Advisory Committee is consulted before the Speaker allots time for discussion of the governor’s address’s subjects.
A motion to thank the governor for the address is made by one member, and it is seconded by another.
Both the themes stated in the address and any other aspect of administration were open for debate during the event.
Members may alter the motion of thanks in any manner the speaker deems appropriate.
3 – Young Professionals Scheme:
GS II Topic Government Policies and Interventions
Up to 3,000 degree-holding citizens between the ages of 18 and 30 are permitted to live and work in each other’s countries for a period of two years under the Young Professionals Scheme, which was launched by the governments of India and the U.K. on January 9, 2023.
What are the scheme’s main characteristics?
Indian young professionals can work in the UK for up to two years through the UK-India Young Professionals Scheme.
It will help 3,000 degree-holding Indians between the ages of 18 and 30.
Starting in the first quarter of 2023, this Plan will be implemented on a reciprocal basis.
As decided in 2021, the initiative will improve the Mobility Partnership and international migration.
India is the first nation with a visa system to gain from this strategy.
It was started in the UK at a time when there was a severe labour shortage there.
Why is this tactic so important?
Manufacturing, hospitality, and construction are just a few of the industries in the UK that are experiencing a labour crisis. According to a recent survey, the labour crisis in the UK was having an effect on three-quarters of enterprises. Concerns about a labour shortage have been attributed to BREXIT. Prior to the outbreak, there was a labour shortage in particular for those industries that were strongly dependent on the EU nations. The nation’s labour shortfall will be resolved through the new initiative.
The new approach will also strengthen relations between India and the UK in terms of trade and culture. India accounts for one-fourth of all foreign students in the UK. This serves as an example of the close ties that exist between the two nations. Over 95,000 employment nationally are directly supported by India’s investment in the UK.
Additionally, the programme will strengthen UK ties to the Indo-Pacific area. The UK had taken a number of steps to deepen its connections with the nations in the area, particularly in terms of security.
What negative aspects of this tactic exist?
The UK-India Young Professionals Scheme is currently open to applications from millions of Indians. Visa overissuance will be a concern as a result. Concerns about the programme becoming monopolised have also been voiced.
4 – Uniform Civil Code:
GS II Topic Constitution related issues
The Supreme Court declared on Monday that no state government’s constitutional authority to appoint a committee to examine how the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is being administered can be challenged.
In relation to matters of personal status, such as adoption, inheritance, and marriage, a UCC would establish a single national law that would be applicable to all faith communities.
The government is required by Article 44 of the Constitution to use all reasonable efforts to make UCCs available to its citizens throughout India.
Article 44 is one of the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP).
Despite the fact that the DPSP as described therein is not justiciable, the concepts outlined in Article 37 are crucial to governance (not enforceable by any court).
In India, a common body of law, including the Evidence Act of 1872, Civil Procedure Code, Transfer of Property Act of 1882, and Partnership Act of 1932, governs the majority of civil proceedings.
States have, however, made many modifications, thus there are differences in some areas even under these secular civil standards.
A few states recently voiced opposition to the 2019 Uniform Motor Vehicles Act.
Background: The British administration emphasised the necessity for uniformity in the codification of Indian law relating to crimes, evidence, and contracts in a report it submitted in 1835, which is where the UCC’s origins may be found. Additionally, it was particularly warned against codifying the personal laws of Muslims and Hindus.
As a result of an expansion in legislation addressing personal concerns after the end of British control, the government established the B N Rau Committee to codify Hindu law in 1941.
The legislation governing intestate or unwilled succession among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs was altered and codified as a result of the 1956 approval of a measure known as the Hindu Succession Act, which was based on these recommendations.
The personal laws, however, were different for Parsis, Christians, and Muslims.
The government should switch to a UCC, the courts have regularly ruled in their judgements, in order to bring uniformity.
The 1985 Shah Bano case judgement is well-known.
Another instance was the Sarla Mudgal Case (1995), which involved the issue of bigamy and a conflict between the existing personal rules on marriage.
The Centre has argued that acts like triple talaq and polygamy have a detrimental effect on a woman’s right to a life of dignity and that it is questionable whether the constitutional protection for religious practises should extend to those that breach fundamental rights.
Effects of the Uniform Civil Code on Personal Laws
Protection of Society’s Vulnerable Groups: According to Ambedkar’s vision, the UCC aims to protect marginalised groups in society, including as women and religious minorities, while also igniting nationalistic fervour through cooperation.
Simplification of Rules: The code will simplify and make more widely applicable all the intricate laws relating to marriage, inheritance, succession, and adoption. The same civil law will subsequently apply to all citizens, regardless of their affiliation with a particular religion.
Following the Secularist Ideal: As mentioned in the Preamble, a secular republic requires a common law for all citizens as opposed to discriminating standards based on religious traditions.
Gender Justice: If a UCC is put into place, all personal laws will be eliminated. The present laws’ prejudice against women will be eliminated.
Since Independence, all central family law Acts passed by Parliament have included an exclusion that states “nothing herein mentioned shall apply to the Renoncants in the Union Territory of Pondicherry” and mention in their introductory sections that they will apply to “the entire of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir.” In 1968, this exclusion was added.
Thirdly, neither Goa, Daman, nor Diu are covered by any of these Acts.
The Constitution’s Articles 371A and 371G, which say that no legislative legislation may replace customary law and a form of government based on religion in the northeastern states of Nagaland and Mizoram, provide the basis for a fourth exemption.
Community politics: The quest for a uniform civil code has been framed by community politics.
The majority of people think it’s majoritarianism disguising itself as social transformation.
Legal Barrier: The equality values outlined in Article 14 of the Indian Constitution collide with Article 25, which preserves the freedom to practise and disseminate any religion.
How to Proceed:
Society and the government must find common ground with social reformers rather than religious conservatives in addition to working hard to build trust.
Instead of adopting an all-encompassing strategy, the government might gradually merge separate elements like marriage, adoption, succession, and maintenance into a UCC.
It is essential that all personal laws be codified so that prejudices and preconceptions can be exposed and compared to the fundamental liberties guaranteed by the Constitution.
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The Hindu Editorial Analyis
A five-member Supreme Court Constitution Bench reserved judgement on a number of petitions challenging the Tamil Nadu ordinance allowing jallikattu on December 8.
Jallikattu, a traditional game, is well-known in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. After releasing a wild bull onto a throng of onlookers, the competitors attempt to manage it by holding onto the bull’s hump and riding it for as long as they can. It is celebrated in January during the Tamil harvest festival of Pongal.
The traditional sport was not allowed to be performed for a few years following the top court’s ruling in May 2014, however soon after Chief Minister Jayalalithaaa’s demise in December 2016, the demand for its reintroduction gained substantial momentum.
Because the 2009 Tamil Nadu Regulation of Jallikattu Act, which made reference to the “taming of bulls,” had been ruled unconstitutional by the court, the writers of the 2017 law defined jallikattu as “an event involving bulls performed with a view to upholding tradition and culture.”
The Supreme Court had hoped to settle the following issues:
When considering petitions against the most recent statute, the court had sought to determine if the 2017 law and guidelines “perpetuate cruelty to animals” or were a way to preserve “the survival and well-being of the local breeds of bulls.” According to Article 29 of the Constitution, Jallikattu should be safeguarded as a common cultural right (1).
According to the opinions of the parties heard before the five-judge Bench, the new Jallikattu laws were “connected” to Article 48 of the Constitution, which required the state to try to manage agricultural and animal husbandry on modern, scientific principles.
Cultural sensitivity of individuals:
In a democracy, it is impossible to ignore the cultural sensitivities of the people.
The Union and State governments suggested a State-specific amendment to the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, a Central statute, six years ago because they thought those in positions of authority, both at the Center and in the State, did not respect this factor.
The amendment, which allowed the event subject to rules and restrictions, settled the quandary that had befallen the State at the time following a substantial gathering of people on the Marina Beach for several days in a row.
The revised law, however, was unable to guarantee that no human lives were lost or even to put an end to instances of animal maltreatment.
How to Proceed:
Regulations need to be reinforced and properly enforced. Additionally, the authorities must inform the populace of the value of a secure and well-run jallikattu. Jallikattu is no exception to the rule in that it, like many traditional practises, has changed over time. This message should be delivered loudly and forcefully to all parties involved.
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The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
Taming Defiant Bugs
Antibiotic resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is a problem that will soon have a global impact on public health (AMR).
It is one of the top 10 health hazards to humanity, according to the WHO.
The foundation of modern medicine is antimicrobials, which are substances or agents that eliminate hazardous germs. Misused antibiotics subject organisms to natural selection pressure.
While the most drug-resistant bacteria swiftly perish, the most resilient ones live, reproduce, and develop into superbugs.
As a result, AMR happens when superbugs emerge and antibiotics begin to lose their effectiveness.
These microorganisms have the ability to infect both humans and animals, and their illnesses are more difficult to treat than those brought on by non-resistant bacteria.
The abuse of antibiotics in humans and animals hastens the occurrence of antibiotic resistance, a natural phenomena.
By the year 2050, AMR is predicted to result in 10 million annual fatalities if coordinated action is not done today. The production of cattle will be reduced by 7.5%, and the global GDP would be severely affected by 3.5%.
About AMR, or antimicrobial resistance:
Antibiotic resistance (AMR) is a condition where bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites alter over time and cease responding to antibiotics, making infections more difficult to cure and raising the risk of disease transmission, serious illness, and death.
Drug resistance makes antibiotics and other antimicrobial therapies useless and makes treating illnesses more challenging or impossible.
What causes AMR specifically?
The formation of bacteria that are resistant to treatment unintentionally results from the antibiotics that doctors mistakenly give.
Widespread Agricultural Use: Antibiotics are routinely used to boost livestock growth in both industrialised and developing nations.
New Antibiotics Are Now Available in Several Forms:
Due to financial and legal barriers, the pharmaceutical industry’s efforts to create new antibiotics—a technique that has previously been effective in battling resistant microbes—have basically stalled. The pharmaceutical industry no longer views antibiotic research as a wise financial venture.
Getting regulatory approval is frequently challenging, even for companies that are fervently searching for novel medications.
Creating a treatment for AMR:
The Covid-19 outbreak has starkly served as a reminder of what it’s like to battle a dangerous sickness without a vaccine or treatment. Covid has also shown that society, business, and the government can cooperate to create crisis-related solutions.
Because we are products of Darwinian evolution, it is challenging to reverse AMR and/or develop remedies for it. As we observed during the Covid outbreak, coordination between the national and international community is therefore required.
To deal with AMR and find solutions, one must negotiate the different spheres of science and society. AMR national action plans (NAPs) have been implemented for the benefit of human health in some of the economies under consideration, including India.
Initiatives on a national and international level to combat AMR?
India is now officially recognised as a member of the Global Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Research and Development (R&D) Hub.
(In connection with the 71st World Health Assembly, the Global AMR R&D Hub was established in May 2018 in response to a request from G20 Leaders in 2017).
The Health Ministry’s implementation of the Red Line initiative:
It uses drugs without a prescription, including antibiotics, that have a red vertical line by their names.
The term “Medicines with the Red Line” is used to describe these drugs.
The “red line,” which prevents inappropriate intake, will help consumers distinguish antibiotics from other medicines.
Antibiotic resistance and other types of antimicrobial resistance are addressed in the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on AMR (2015).
The primary causes of AMR are the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in humans, animals, and agriculture.
Therefore, coordinated efforts across all industries are needed to ensure the proper use of antibiotics in people, animals, and crops.
To try to reverse AMR, the additional steps listed below can be implemented locally, either jointly or individually:
Preventing infections whenever possible is equal to avoiding resistance since disease prevention and wellness are essential to public health.
Monitoring cleaning measures, ensuring access to clean water, and supporting hospital-led infection-control programmes are essential.
Antimicrobials must only be prescribed in the most dire situations in order to reduce AMR.
Stopping the overuse of antibiotics in farming, which results in the development of drug-resistant bacteria in our food supply, requires cooperation between the animal and environmental sectors.
a protracted vaccination campaign Vaccines will help you avoid getting sick and may even be able to stop the spread of AMR diseases.
For many infectious diseases, immunisation programmes are still far from comprehensive and finished.
By enabling us to identify resistant illnesses of every kind in the environment and hospitals, a good surveillance system will eventually enable containment, which is strongly tied to prevention.
Spending more on research and development with support from both public and commercial sources:
A robust pipeline of novel antibiotics is urgently required since it is crucial to reestablishing equilibrium and providing us with new weapons in the fight against AMR.
The creation of a new antibiotic takes more than ten years and costs upwards of $1 billion, from basic research to clinical trials.
These medications don’t generate a lot of revenue, though. In light of this, the fourth recommendation would be to develop creative financial incentives that would sever the traditional link between sales and profits and gauge profitability using the antibiotic’s social worth instead.
Since antibiotics and other antimicrobial therapies are finite resources that should be made available to everyone, we must adopt a shared moral perspective on AMR.
For individuals who are exposed to it, the existence of AMR poses a major risk. For individuals who encounter them, chronic sickness, mortality, and incapacity-related lengthy hospital stays are enormously expensive.
Modern medicine, women’s health, infectious diseases, surgery, and cancer risks would all rise without effective antimicrobials.
Because AMR has a high monetary cost, developing and implementing policies must follow a thorough “One Health” approach.
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