Mains Q & A 12 January 2023
Q1. Discuss how cooperative societies impact national economic expansion. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS III Indian Economy
A cooperative is an autonomous collection of individuals who have voluntarily joined forces to solve their common needs and goals in the economic, social, and cultural spheres through a jointly owned and democratically run business. The needs of the participants and the broader interests of the community strike a balance with the desire for profitability.
The Union Home and Cooperation Minister recently emphasised that the cooperative sector has the ability to grow India into a USD 5-trillion economy while speaking at a festival in Anand, Gujarat, to honour 75 years of dairy products giant Amul.
Contribution of cooperative societies to national economic expansion:
India, an agricultural country, founded the largest cooperative movement in history.
For instance, Amul collaborates with 16 million milk farmers, 1,85,903 dairy cooperatives, 222 district cooperative milk unions, and 28 state marketing federations to promote its products.
More than 8 lakh cooperatives of all sizes and varieties exist in India.
Particularly pertinent in India is a cooperative-based economic growth model where each participant works with a sense of responsibility.
It provides agricultural credits and financing in regions where neither the public nor private sectors have been successful in making significant progress.
It provides strategic inputs to agriculture, enabling consumer societies to meet their consumption needs.
It’s a community of poor people who wish to cooperate to address their problems.
It minimises social rifts and resolves class conflicts.
The development of cottage and small companies is encouraged, bureaucratic errors and political party blunders are reduced, and barriers to agricultural development are removed.
The foundation of social cooperatives is the idea that communities build infrastructure using local resources and family labour.
These might involve keeping up the community tank, paving the community road (either with or without MGNREGA), finishing the last mile of a canal system, or even keeping an eye on the contractor. The pandemic seems to have increased the significance of community effort.
In order to address the urgent problems of reducing vaccination reluctance, feeding people who are waiting outside hospitals, and, most importantly, caring for orphaned children, the cooperative approach is urgently required.
putting the Vaidyanathan committee’s suggestions for credit cooperative societies into practise.
Beyond cooperatives in agriculture, milk, credit, and housing, cooperatives must broaden the scope of the agenda.
Cooperative organisations can play a vital role in educating people about the new fields and technologies that are emerging as a result of technological development.
There has to be an increase in the number of female-led cooperatives.
The cooperative movement’s guiding premise is to protect anonymity while bringing everyone together. The cooperative movement has the ability to address issues that affect individuals.
Cooperatives do, however, exhibit irregularities, and stricter regulations and increased enforcement are required to detect them.
Q2. There is proof that eating healthily and getting improved nutrition improve learning, which improves academic success. Examine the success of the PM Poshan Shakti Nirman Yojana in achieving the aforementioned objectives. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS II Government Policies & Interventions
The Mid-Day Meal Program has been changed, and students are now served hot meals through the National Scheme for PM Poshan Shakti Nirman. India suffers from a number of nutritional problems, such as undernourishment, obesity, and overweight/obesity, as well as a deficiency in micronutrients like iron, zinc, calcium, and other vitamins. Malnutrition has a triple burden that must be understood, accepted, and addressed. Since the body experiences rapid physical growth and the creation of food habits during different life stages, it is much more important for children and teenagers.
The value of nutrition to children:
Childhood and adolescence are two interwoven developmental phases that continue for an equal period of time.
For instance, between the ages of two and ten, children normally gain between 1.5 and 3 kg and 6-7 cm in height each year.
But particularly during adolescence, between the ages of 10 and 12 for girls and two years later for boys, when both genders experience a growth spurt, when their dietary needs dramatically rise.
The nutritional status of girls affects both their personal health and the health of future generations.
Any form of malnutrition in children and adolescents increases the risk of immune system deterioration and increased susceptibility to sickness.
Nutritional supplementation: The new programme contains a provision for children living in wealthy neighbourhoods and those whose anaemia prevalence is high to receive nutritional supplements.
Now that states will be free to pick their own diets, the Center’s insistence that it exclusively provide funds for vegetables and grains like wheat, rice, and pulses has virtually come to an end. Currently, if a state decides to add a menu item like milk or eggs, the Centre is not liable for paying any additional expenses. That restriction has been lifted.
To provide pupils “direct exposure to nature and horticulture,” schools will instal nutri-gardens.
Women and FPOs: Farmer producer organisations and women’s self-help groups will be urged to support locally produced traditional foods in order to increase awareness of regional issues.
Social Audit: The strategy also asks on college and university students to “inspect” the implementation at the local level.
Tithi-Bhojan: Communities will be urged to provide food for children at celebrations and other events, and it’s also being thought about holding cooking competitions to promote local cuisines.
Nutritional goals that emphasise “holistic nutrition” are the focus of the renamed programme. School nutrition gardens will be encouraged in addition to promoting the use of regionally cultivated traditional foods.
The plan’s obstacles in implementation are:
Awareness and promoting children’s immunity require an understanding of the disruptive social environment factors that change dietary quality.
In urban, middle-class, and affluent neighbourhoods, movement restrictions, limited socialisation, and even reduced physical touch have become the new norm.
Not all children are covered, despite the fact that Asha and Anganwadi staff members have been working nonstop to supply food grains. The workers are also a little exhausted.
Children’s immune systems are currently under far more stress as a result of COVID-19 isolation and tiredness.
These problems, together with a lack of dietary variety that leads to an imbalanced intake of micronutrients or the consumption of high-carb, high-sugar meals, put the child’s health at risk by weakening their immune systems. We must therefore modify our attitude to nutrition.
Due to school closings, starvation is now a bigger problem.
Whether COVID-19 is present or not, a high level of immunity will pave the way for long-term health. After all, a good immune system is founded on a foundation of wholesome eating, risk-free foods, and healthy lifestyle decisions. To ensure this, schools should place more of an emphasis on teaching nutrition as a life skill when they reopen than on rhetorical pedagogy. It is our shared responsibility to ensure the upbringing and sustenance of our kids.
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