News & Editorial Analysis 16 January 2023
The Hindu News Analysis
1 – G 20:
GS II Topic International Organizations
The G20 is a loose coalition of 19 nations, the EU, and officials from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
The G20 membership is made up of a variety of the major advanced and emerging economies in the world, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of its gross domestic product, 80% of its investment, and more than 75% of its commerce.
1997-1999 After the G7 welcomed both rich and emerging economies, the ASIAN Financial Crisis evolved as a ministerial-level meeting. Meetings between central bank governors and finance ministers first started in 1999.
The globe recognised the need for new consensus building at the highest political level during the 2008 Financial Crisis. The G20 leaders will henceforth convene once a year, it was determined.
The G20 finance ministers and central bank governors continue to meet separately twice a year to help prepare for these summits. They get together at the same time as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
How Does the G20 Operate?
There are two tracks for the G20’s work:
All meetings with G20 central bank governors and their deputies fall under the umbrella of the finance track. They meet frequently throughout the year and concentrate on matters related to money and finances, financial rules, etc.
Broader topics including political participation, corruption prevention, development, energy, etc. are the subject of the Sherpa track.
Each G20 nation is represented by a Sherpa, who acts on behalf of the country’s leader to plan, direct, implement, etc. Shri Shaktikanta Das, an Indian Sherpa, attended the G20 in Argentina in 2018.
G20 Participant Nations:
Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and the European Union are the members of the G20.
Spain participates in leader summits as a permanent, non-member invitee.
G20 Organization and Functioning:
A structure that annually rotates the G20 Presidency provides a regional balance over time.
The 19 nations are divided into 5 groups with a maximum of 4 nations each for the purpose of choosing the presidency. Each group takes turns holding the presidency. The G20 elects a nation from another group to serve as president each year.
Along with Russia, South Africa, and Turkey, India is in Group 2.
There is no fixed secretariat or headquarters for the G20. Instead, it is the responsibility of the G20 president to put together the G20 agenda after consulting with other participants and in reaction to changes in the global economy.
TROIKA: Every year, when a new nation becomes the president (in this case, Argentina in 2018), it collaborates with the outgoing nation (Germany in 2017) and the incoming nation (Japan in 2019), and this is referred to as TROIKA collectively. This guarantees the group’s agenda’s stability and continuity.
Leaders proclaimed it to be the finest meeting for international business cooperation in Toronto in 2010.
Several international organisations that offer policy guidance support the activities of G20 members. These businesses include:
Board for Financial Stability (FSB). The G20 presidents created the FSB after the start of the world financial crisis.
Organization for International Labor (ILO).
Global Financial Institutions (IMF).
The OED, or Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
World Organization (UN)
Organization for World Trade (WTO)
The G20 frequently interacts with non-governmental organisations. Throughout the year, key events are being held by engagement groups from business (B20), civil society (C20), labour (L20), think tanks (T20), and youth (Y20), the results of which will inform the G20 leaders’ discussions.
G20 Issues Addressed:
The G20 focuses on a wide range of global concerns; while issues relating to the global economy predominate the agenda, other items have gained importance recently, including:
Fiscal policy and taxes
Women’s advancement in the workforce
The Sustainable Development Goals for 2030
Enterprise that is inclusive
India’s Goals at the G20 Summit:
Combating corruption by preventing tax evasion
Limiting the funding for terrorism
Lowering remittances’ price
Market entry for important medications
World Trade Organization changes to enhance performance
The Paris Agreement’s “full implementation”
Achievements of G 20:
With only 20 members, the G20 is small enough to act quickly and adjust to changing situations.
A larger and more thorough view is possible when evaluating global concerns and forging consensus to address them thanks to the presence of invited countries, international organisations, and civil society organisations every year through engagement groups.
Cooperation: The G-20 has been instrumental in improving cross-national coordination and strengthening the global financial regulatory framework.
Helped multilateral development banks grow their lending by US$235 billion at a time when private sector sources of funding were declining.
One of the G20’s major accomplishments was the prompt distribution of emergency funds during the global financial crisis of 2008.
By enhancing monitoring of national financial institutions, it also contributes to reforms in international financial institutions. For instance, the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project, which the G20 and OECD are driving, and the adoption of tax transparency norms.
The WTO estimated that if the Trade Facilitation Agreement were completely implemented by 2030, it might contribute up to between 5.4 and 8.7 percent to the global GDP. The G20 was crucial in securing the agreement’s passage.
Better Communication: The G20 brings together the world’s leading industrialised and developing nations to promote consensus and logic in decision-making through debate.
Challenges faced by G 20:
No enforcement mechanism: The G20’s toolkit includes straightforward information exchanges and best practises, as well as agreements on shared, quantifiable goals and coordinated action. Except for the motivation of peer review and public accountability, none of this is accomplished without consensus and is not enforceable.
The decisions are not legally binding because they are the result of discussions and consensus that take the form of statements. These statements are not contractual obligations. There are just 20 people in this advising or consultative group.
Steps to Take:
The G20 cannot solve all of the world’s issues. The G20, however, has played a significant role in fostering global collaboration over the last ten years.
As emerging nations look for ways to influence and contribute to the world order, effective global governance, like the G20, is crucial.
2 – Provisions against Insulting Tricolour of India:
GS II Topic Indian Laws
History of the Indian Flag Adoption:
According to legend, the first national flag, which included three horizontal red, yellow, and green stripes, was raised on August 7, 1906, in Calcutta at Parsee Bagan Square, close to Lower Circular Road (now Kolkata).
Freedom fighter PingaliVenkayya later met Mahatma Gandhi in 1921 and suggested the basic layout of the flag, which consists of two red and green bands.
The Tricolour was finally chosen as our national flag at a Congress Committee meeting in Karachi in 1931 after going through a number of revisions.
On July 22, 1947, the Constituent Assembly met and accepted the Indian flag in its current configuration.
Guidelines for the Tricolor:
Act of 1950 to Prevent Improper Use of Emblems and Names:
It prohibits the use of the national flag, a department’s coat of arms, the president’s or governor’s official seal, a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi or the prime minister, and the Ashoka Chakra.
Act of 1971 to Prevent Insults to National Honour:
The national flag, the Constitution, the national song, and the Indian map are only a few examples of the national symbols that are forbidden from being insulted or desecrated.
A person is barred from running in the Parliamentary and state legislative elections for six years if they are found guilty of the following offences under the Act.
disrespecting the national flag is a crime,
disrespecting the Indian Constitution is a crime,
obstructing the singing of the national anthem is a crime.
The 2002 Indian Flag Code:
As long as the flag’s honour and dignity were maintained, it permitted the exhibition of the Tricolor without restriction.
The pre-existing regulations controlling the proper display of the flag were not repealed by the flag code.
However, it was an attempt to include all of the earlier laws, customs, and practises.
It is broken down into three sections: a general description of the tricolour, guidelines for use in displaying the flag by government entities and commercial, public, and academic organisations.
It states that the tricolour cannot be utilised for profit-making endeavours or to pay respect to anyone or anything.
The flag should also not be used as a festoon or for any sort of decoration.
Only flags that meet the requirements established by the Bureau of Indian Standards and bear their mark may be used for official display.
The Constitution’s Part IV-A:
The Constitution’s Part IV-A, which has just one Article 51-A, lists the eleven Fundamental Duties.
Every Indian citizen has a responsibility to uphold the Constitution, its principles and institutions, the National Flag, and the National Anthem, as stated in Article 51A (a).
3 – Indian Meteorlogical Department:
GS II Topic Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies
About the Indian Meteorological Department:
The India Meteorological Department, also known as IMD, was founded in 1875. It is the nation’s National Meteorological Service and the leading government body for all matters pertaining to meteorology and related topics.
In 1875, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) was founded. It is a department of the Indian government’s Ministry of Earth Sciences.
It is the main organisation in charge of seismology, meteorological observations, and weather forecasting.
The World Meteorological Organization has six regional specialised meteorological centres, and IMD is one of them.
The cyclones in the northern Indian Ocean are named by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) of Tropical Cyclones in New Delhi.
IMD’s main office is in New Delhi
Objectives of IMD:
–for the best performance of weather-sensitive industries including agriculture, irrigation, shipping, aviation, offshore oil explorations, etc., to collect meteorological observations and to give current and forecast meteorological information.
–to issue warnings about dangerous weather conditions that can destroy both life and property, such as tropical cyclones, nor’easters, dust storms, heavy rain, snow, cold, and heat waves.
–IMD is necessary to offer the meteorological data needed for managing water resources, industry, oil exploration, and other nation-building endeavours.
–to carry out and advance research in meteorology and related fields.
4 – Enforcement Directorate:
GS II Topic Statutory and Non-Statutory Bodies
About the Enforcement Directorate:
This Directorate was first established on May 1st, 1956, when the Department of Economic Affairs established a “Enforcement Unit” to handle Exchange Control Law infractions under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947 (FERA ’47).
This unit was given the new name “Enforcement Directorate” in 1957.
Currently, it is a division of the Ministry of Finance’s Department of Revenue.
The Foreign Exchange Management Act of 1999 (FEMA) and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act of 2002 are two special fiscal laws that the Organization is tasked with executing (PMLA).
In addition to hiring people directly, the Directorate also deputises officers from several investigating agencies, such as Customs & Central Excise, Income Tax, and Police.
The 2018 Fugitive Economic Offenders Act is being used to process cases involving fugitives from India.
Promote cases of preventative detention for FEMA violations under the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (COFEPOSA).
The Central Government designates one or more Sessions Courts as Special Courts for the trial of an offence punishable under Section 4 of the PMLA (in collaboration with the Chief Justice of the High Court) (s). PMLA Court is another name for the court.
Any appeal against a decision made by the PMLA court may be brought directly before the High Court for that region.
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The Hindu Editorial Analysis
Rules are necessary for self-government. In light of Indian legislation controlling artificial intelligence, this is very significant (AI). Due to insufficient controls, AI can be abused by individuals, corporations, and even non-state actors. When there is legal ambiguity, there is also a lack of accountability and oversight, which increases the likelihood of disaster. Deepfakes policy gaps are the perfect illustration of this situation.
Deepfakes are manufactured works of art in which the likeness of a different person is used to substitute a person in an already-existing photograph or video. Deep learning and fake are combined to form the phrase “deepfakes.” Deepfakes, for instance, “employ sophisticated techniques from machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) to alter or produce visual and auditory content with a high potential for deception.”
We should embrace technology while being aware of the serious issues with deepfakes.
Since they are entertaining, deepfake movies can be used to spread misinformation and propaganda. They seriously impede the general public’s ability to distinguish between fact and fiction.
In the past, deepfakes have been used to depict individuals in unpleasant and uncomfortable circumstances, such as in pornographic material starring well-known individuals. In addition to infringing the privacy of the people who are allegedly depicted in them, such photos and films also constitute harassment.
Deepfakes have been used in financial fraud. Recently, con artists used AI-powered software to trick the CEO of a U.K. energy company into believing he was chatting with the leader of the German parent company over the phone. As a result, the CEO wired a large sum of money—€2,20,000—to someone he thought to be a supplier.
Creating a tense situation in the neighbourhood:
In three separate ways, deepfakes can be a devastating weapon in the hands of India’s adversarial neighbours and non-state actors to stir up trouble in the country.
Deepfakes have the potential to affect elections. Changes to election laws approved by Taiwan’s cabinet make it unlawful to share deepfake videos or images. These changes were made in response to Taiwan’s rising concern that China is spreading false information in an effort to rig elections and alter public opinion. This could happen in India’s future general elections as well. Ironically, China is one of the only countries with legislation prohibiting the use of deep fakes that are deemed to be harmful to the national economy or security.
Deepfakes can also be utilised for espionage. Defense and government employees may be forced to divulge confidential information through edited videos.
The president of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelensky, revealed in March 2022 that a social media video in which he appeared to be advising Ukrainian soldiers to capitulate to Russian forces was a deepfake.
Similar to this, deepfakes may be used in India to produce inflammatory content, including recordings purporting to depict members of the military or police committing “crimes” in combat situations. These deepfakes could be employed to enlist terrorists, radicalise individuals, or incite violence.
As technology advances, anyone may be able to question the authenticity of genuine video by claiming that it is a deepfake, especially if it shows them engaging in unethical or unlawful behaviour. This could lead to the “Liar’s Dividend,” which is the idea that people can take advantage of the expanding acceptance and knowledge of deepfake technology by challenging the authenticity of specific content.
Moving ahead necessary regulations:
IPC (Indian Penal Code) and Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000 provisions that could be utilised to counter the malicious use of deepfakes are currently rather scarce.
The consequences for defamation are outlined in Section 500 of the IPC. Explicit sexual content is prohibited by Sections 67 and 67A of the Information Technology Act.
The Representation of the People Act of 1951 forbids the creation or broadcast of false or misleading information about candidates or political parties during an election period.
However, they fall short. The Election Commission of India has created norms requiring registered political parties and candidates to acquire prior authorization for any political advertisements on electronic media, including TV and social media websites, in order to help assure their correctness and impartiality. But the risks that deepfake content can pose are not covered by these rules.
Laws that address the issues and challenges that emerging technology pose frequently lag in their implementation. The Indian legal framework for artificial intelligence is insufficient to adequately handle the numerous issues that AI algorithms have caused.
To prevent deepfakes from being used illegally and to regulate AI in general, the Union government must create distinct legislation. Legislation shouldn’t halt AI development, but it should realise that deepfake technology might be employed in criminal activity and lay forth guidelines for how to handle its application in these circumstances.
The upcoming Digital India Bill can also help with this issue. The self-regulation principle is not always reliable.
#Deepfakes #Introduction #Deep_pocketed #Issues #Creating #Tense #Situation #Neighbourhood #Moving_Ahead #Necessary #Regulations #India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS
The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reports that the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has discovered its first entirely new exoplanet.
The planet, also known as LHS 475 b, is around the same size as Earth, according to NASA. The planet is only 41 light-years away, orbits a red dwarf star quite closely, and makes one full rotation in just under two days.
The exoplanet WASP-39b provided the first-ever evidence of carbon dioxide in an exoplanet’s atmosphere, according to JSWT.
What are exoplanets?
Exoplanets are planets that exist outside of our solar system and orbit different stars.
According to NASA, more than 5,000 exoplanets have been discovered thus far. Scientists believe that there are more planets than stars in the universe since every star has at least one planet surrounding it.
Extrasolar planets come in a variety of different sizes. They can be as massive as gas giants the size of Jupiter or as little and rocky as the Earth. In addition, they are known to have a wide temperature range, from bitterly cold to scorching hot.
Why and how do we study them?
Why: ? Exoplanet research advances our understanding of other solar systems while also helping us to comprehend how our own solar system and planetary system came to be.
The strongest case for finding out whether life exists or might exist on other planets, though.
How? In order to understand an exoplanet’s qualities, scientists look at its mass, diameter, and determine whether it is solid, gaseous, or even possesses water vapour in its atmosphere.
One of the most important aspects of the inquiry is determining the separation between an exoplanet and its home star.
This helps researchers determine if a planet they have found is habitable or not.
If an exoplanet is too close to the star, it might be too hot for liquid water to exist there. Depending on how far away it is, it might only contain frozen water.
When a planet’s distance from the sun enables it to support liquid water, this is referred to as being in the “Goldilocks zone.”
Since the Webb telescope is the only one capable of characterising the atmospheres of planets the size of Earth orbiting distant stars, scientists hope that their understanding of exoplanets will improve as a result of its launch.
How exactly are exoplanets discovered?
According to NASA, it is challenging to locate exoplanets since they are small and obscured by their blazing home stars.
One of the indirect ways employed by scientists is the transit method, which entails “measuring the dimming of a star that just so happens to have a planet pass in front of it.”
What are red dwarf stars?
Recently discovered exoplanet orbits a red dwarf star. These are the most common and smallest stars in the cosmos.
They don’t release much light, thus it is very challenging to see them with the human eye from Earth. It is easier to find exoplanets that orbit red dwarf stars since they are fainter than other stars. As a result, planet hunters prefer to search red dwarfs.
It was launched on December 20, 2021, from the ESA’s launch facility in Kourou, French Guiana, as an infrared space observatory.
It has a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. As a result, it will build upon and supplement the discoveries made by the Hubble Space Telescope thanks to a larger wavelength coverage and noticeably improved sensitivity.
The longer wavelengths allow Webb to go far closer to the beginning of time and hunt for the undetected formation of the first galaxies, in addition to looking into dust clouds where stars and planetary systems are presently emerging.
International collaboration is taking place on this project between the Canadian Space Agency, NASA, and ESA (the European Space Agency) (CSA).
It is The second Lagrange point (L2), a point in space close to Earth that lies opposite from the sun, is where the telescope is situated in a solar orbit. The telescope may orbit the sun in line with Earth thanks to this orbit. It has proven to be a helpful position for other space telescopes including the Herschel Space Telescope and the Planck Space Observatory.
Keep an eye out for the earliest galaxies or brilliant objects to form after the Big Bang.
Find out how galaxies have changed since they first appeared.
Observe the development of stars, from their early stages to the formation of planetary systems.
Check whether there is a probability for life by measuring the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems, such as our own Solar System.
to investigate the atmospheres of various exoplanets.
Scientists are searching for atmospheres that mirror Earth’s as well as indications of significant elements including methane, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and complex organic molecules in an effort to find the building blocks of life.
JWST’s anticipated positive effects include:
We now have a great deal of accurate knowledge about our cosmos thanks to developments in telescope technology over the past century, which have affected all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, not just the visible range. which the Webb telescope, with its cutting-edge machinery, gives a unique opportunity.
As the primary method through which astrophysicists discover the universe is through electromagnetic radiation. The full range of wavelengths, from extremely long radio waves to visible light to extremely brief gamma rays, are covered by these light-speed waves.
JWST will build on the discoveries made by the Hubble Space Telescope by encompassing additional wavelengths and having noticeably higher sensitivity. JWST is an infrared telescope with a huge 6.5-meter primary mirror.
As Infrared radiation has an advantage over visible light in that it can more easily pass through dust clouds. It can now see past the dust clouds that cover the regions where stars and planets are formed.
As a result, it also produces a sizable amount of spectroscopic data, some of which reveal the chemical composition of the source of the radiation. By examining the chemical makeup of exoplanets and planets orbiting other stars, it might be possible to determine whether life as we know it is possible on these faraway worlds.
It is also predicted that JWST will provide us with space data throughout the course of its lifetime to help in understanding some of the myriad cosmic mysteries that are not now directly detectable, such as dark matter and dark energy.
#Exoplanets# Present #Circumstances #Study #Discovered #Red #Dwarf #Stars #Goals #JWST’s #Anticipated #Positive #Effects #Include #India #World #Daily #The_Indian_Express_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS
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