News & Editorial Analysis 17 January 2023
The Hindu News Analysis
1– World Health Organization (WHO)
GS II Health Related Topics & International Organizations
Basic Info about the World Health Organization (WHO):
The World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations’ specialised organisation for health, was founded in 1948.
Geneva, Switzerland is home to the company’s headquarters.
The Organization has 194 Member States, 150 Country Offices, and six Regional Offices.
It is an intergovernmental organisation that works with its member states, usually through their ministries of health.
The WHO sets the research agenda, establishes norms and standards, articulates evidence-based policy alternatives, provides technical help to countries, and monitors and assesses global health trends.
It first opened its doors on April 7, 1948, which is today known as World Health Day.
Assume the job of worldwide health director and organiser.
As needed, establish and maintain effective coordination with the UN, specialised agencies, government health administrations, professional groups, and other organisations.
Assist governments in strengthening health services upon request.
Encourage scientific and professional organisations that work to improve health to collaborate.
The Health Assembly is made up of delegates that represent members.
Each Member is represented by up to three delegates, one of whom is designated as the Member’s head delegate.
These delegates are selected from among individuals with the greatest level of technical experience in the field of health, ideally from the Member’s national health administration.
The Health Assembly meets on a regular basis as well as on occasion for special sessions.
2 –Attorney General Of India (AGI)
GS II Topic Constitutional Posts and their related topics
About India’s Attorney General:
The Attorney General of India (AG) is a member of India’s Union Executive.
The Attorney General is the highest law enforcement authority in the country.
Article 76 of the Constitution establishes the position of Attorney General of India.
Eligibility and Appointment:
The President picks the Attorney General based on the government’s recommendation.
S/he must be an Indian citizen who has served as a high court judge for five years or as a high court attorney for 10 years, or as a famous jurist, according to the President’s decision.
The term of the office is not specified in the Constitution.
The processes and grounds for the removal of the AG are not specified in the Constitution. He/she works at the President’s pleasure (may be removed by the President at any time).
To provide legal advice to the Government of India (GoI) on matters that the President has entrusted to her or him.
To carry out any additional legal tasks that the President has assigned to her/him.
In all Supreme Court and High Court cases involving the Government of India, to represent the Government of India.
In any Supreme Court referral made by the President under Article 143 of the Constitution, to represent the Government of India (Power of the President to Consult the Supreme Court).
To fulfil the responsibilities entrusted to her or him by the Constitution or other laws.
Rights and Limitations:
S/he has the right to speak and participate in the proceedings of both Houses of Parliament, as well as any Parliamentary committee to which s/he may be appointed, but not to vote.
3 –What is the prevention of money laundering Act
GS III Topic Indian Economy
The PMLA Act of 2002:
India’s particular legislation dealing with money laundering is the Prevention of Money Laundering Act ((PMLA), 2002).
The law, which was enacted in India to combat money laundering, has three basic objectives:
Preventing and combating money laundering.
To provide for the forfeiture and seizure of property acquired through money laundering.
In India, to deal with any other money-laundering-related issue.
Under the PMLA Act, the Enforcement Directorate is authorised to conduct a Money Laundering investigation.
In addition to the rules of the PMLA, there are other specialised requirements, such as the RBI/SEBI/IRDA anti-money laundering regulations Enforcement Directorate.
What are the specific modifications that will be implemented:
According to the amendment, money laundering will be classified as a separate crime.
Money laundering was originally not a stand-alone crime; instead, it was dependent on the proceeds of another crime, known as a “predicate offence” or “scheduled offence,” which became the subject of the money laundering crime.
The concept of “proceeds of crime” is now expanded to encompass property “produced or received directly or indirectly as a result of any criminal action relating to the scheduled offence.”
The most notable changes are the elimination of clauses in sub-sections (1) of Section 17 (Search and Seizure) and Section 18 (Criminal Procedure) (Search of Persons).
Under these rules, other agencies authorised to investigate the offences mentioned in the PMLA schedule were required to file a FIR or charge sheet.
4–Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav initiative
Topic Prelims Specific Topic
The Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav has been launched by the Indian government to commemorate and celebrate 75 years of progressive India, as well as the rich history of its people, culture, and achievements.
This Mahotsav is dedicated to the people of India who have not only helped brought India this far in its evolutionary path, but also hold the power and capacity to enable the vision of activating India 2.0, driven by the spirit of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav is a celebration of India’s progressive sociocultural, political, and economic identity. After a 75-week countdown to our 75th anniversary of independence, the official journey of the “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav” will begin on March 12, 2021, and end on August 15, 2022.
#World_Health_Organization #WHO #GSII #Health #International #Organizations #Goals #Administration #Attorney_General_Of_India #AGI #Constitutional_Posts #Eligibility #Appointment #Responsibilities #Prevention #Money_laundering_Act #GSIII #Indian_Economy #PMLA_Act #2002 #Specific #Modifications #Implemented #Azadi_ka_Amrit_Mahotsav #Initiative #India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS
The Hindu Editorial Analysis
Open Access Movement
The term “open access” (OA) is used to describe particular academic publication practises that broaden public access to creative work. A scientific paper that is open access (OA) will be free to read.
About OA Movement:
One of the main factors contributing to the OA movement’s current popularity is the prohibitive cost of obtaining scholarly journals. Numerous journals routinely charge $15 or more to read a paper just once and $30 or more for continued access. Universities currently spend many crores annually on the escalating subscription costs for these periodicals.
There are other OA programmes that offer better alternatives. In order for everyone in the nation to read the papers without paying any additional fees, the government will bargain with publishers for a capped and fixed rate to access their papers (of studies financed by the state) and pay the fees. In India, the “One Nation, One Subscription” (ONOS) programme has recently begun.
The Education Ministry set an implementation deadline of April 1, 2023, and has already reduced the number of publishers to 70.
How to publish a research article:
A scientist writes an article and submits it to a journal. Peer reviewers, who are subject area experts who study the paper after the journal’s editors have submitted it, look at the authors’ claims and make ideas about how to structure it, cite earlier research, reach certain conclusions, etc. The paper is polished when the review is finished, and the magazine then publishes it in print, online, or both.
A barrier protects online publications that use the “subscription model.”
A paywall is a method of controlling access to content by requesting payment or a paid subscription.
Paywall charges have climbed quickly over time. 59 of the 100 “most frequently cited publications ever published,” according to a 2018 Duke University poll, are behind a paywall, with each article costing an independent researcher an average of $33.41 (or $2,285). (2018).
A 2020 report by fellows of India’s science academies noted that “During 2018, India spent an estimated 1,500 crore for subscriptions to [e-journals] and/or print journals.” As access to papers increases in cost, fewer academics, journalists, policymakers, students, etc. can access them.
The several types of OA include:
With the advent of the internet, OA gained popularity in the early 1990s, which was followed by interest from academics, libraries, and other stakeholders in reducing publication costs and boosting access.
In 1991, physicist Paul Ginsparg established the preprint repository arXiv.org. Before it is sent to a journal, the manuscript is known as a preprint. Although post-publication peer review is one option, preprint publications are not often subjected to peer review.
The availability of preprints led to the conversion of many journals to open access, but there was a catch. Some of them began charging authors of a paper an article processing fee, which journals referred to as a fee, as opposed to the work’s readers after publication (APC). Thus, the Gold OA APC model is called.
In Green OA, a repository at the institute level retains copies of papers published by its researchers and makes them available to the public after an embargo period—often specified by the journals that publish the works—that is commonly specified by the repository.
Papers are published in a journal for no cost via Diamond OA. Even while hybrid journals use the subscription model, authors of articles that have been published and put behind a paywall may pay extra costs to “transform” them open access (OA).
Free OA only allows fair usage, nothing more.
Libre OA authorises one or more uses in addition to fair use.
Sci-Hub, a digital platform that provides open access to thousands of academic articles that were taken illegally and whose legality is currently being contested in the Delhi High Court, is allegedly Black OA.
Why is it necessary:
But many newspapers charge absurdly high APCs. The Nature Communications APC for each accepted publication is 5.2 lakh, although the journal only publishes manuscripts that are openly accessible. India is not one of the countries that qualify for the exclusions offered to low- and lower-income countries.
According to the 2020 study, Indian researchers paid 38 crore between 2016 and 2019 to publish works in “just two OA journals: PLOS One and Scientific Reports.”
In an effort to save costs, the government established ONOS in 2020, but experts are still divided. Three main concerns exist:
Even though the government will only give journals a certain amount, it might still be a lot.
Throughout the discussions, which periodicals will be discussed and why?
Journals may not agree on a common charge because to India’s vast population of researchers with a diverse variety of interests (in 2020, a “recommended list” received some criticism).
The prognosis for OA:
In its “Recommendation on Open Research” from 2021, UNESCO advocated that “no one [be] left behind with regard to access to knowledge and advantages from scientific advancement.” This was especially important as countries dealt with epochal concerns like global warming and zoonoses.
Today, the focus is on how to make OA more widely accepted. 2018 saw the commencement of the global collaboration’s Plan S project. According to the Plan S member organisations, “scientific articles that are the outcome of research supported by public grants” will be “published in compatible OA journals or platforms” by 2021.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced a policy in January 2021 allowing “the unlimited access and reuse of any peer-reviewed published research financed, in whole or in part, by the foundation.” Other research funding organisations have released similar regulations. But those who must achieve these objectives frequently contribute a lot of money to Gold OA or hybrid publishing.
“The difficulty of finding sustainable means to support the costs of OA publication has delayed the OA transition across the business,” claims Michael Donaldson, who works in the scholarly publishing industry.
#Open_Access_Movement #OA #How #Publish #Research_Article #Several_Types #Why #Necessary #Prognosis #India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS
The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
Amul as a model of a good cooperative
At the most fundamental level, cooperative organisations play a critical role in the organised and inclusive development of society.
Businesses known as cooperatives are owned by its members, who may be producers or consumers.
These members regard the cooperative largely for the services it provides, despite the fact that they may own shares.
These services, if provided by a producer-owned cooperative, can include purchasing, processing, and marketing the members’ produce or providing them with access to raw materials.
Success criteria in this scenario are not earnings per share or dividend payout ratios, but rather the cost of the produce and the speed with which it is paid for, or the provision of high-quality cow feed, farm extension and animal healthcare support, fertilisers, and credit at least cost.
Contrarily, businesses are investor-owned entities whose main objective is to maximise return on money.
This is reflected in the value of those shares, regardless of whether or not they are traded on an exchange.
The investor-owned ultimately seeks capital growth and the highest price for the shares he might choose to sell or commit to purchase in order to raise additional funds.
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF). AMUL is a fantastic example of collaboration.
The largest dairy cooperative in Gujarat, it would eventually be owned by 36.4 lakh farmers. 18.154 village-level organisations across the state receive milk from it.
Between 2001-02 and 2021-22, GCMMF’s sales turnover went from Rs 2,336 crore to Rs 46,481 crore, and the average daily volume of milk purchased rose from 47.32 lakh litres to 263.66 lakh litres, including 42.68 lakh litres from outside Gujarat.
However, the price at which her milk is purchased is significant to the farmer-owner, just as the share price of a firm is important to an investor-owner.
Over the past 20 years, the district milk unions of the GCMMF have boosted the average procurement price paid to farmers from Rs 184 to Rs 820 per kg of fat.
It was enabled by capable management.
Since Verghese Kurien to B M Vyas and R S Sodhi, the Amul organisational model has been built on an elected board of directors acting through a chief executive and his team, which comprises marketing and financial experts, project engineers, veterinarians, agronomists, and nutritionists.
This paradigm distinguishes the managing directors of other state dairy cooperative federations from GCMMF, who are primarily Indian Administrative Service personnel who answer to secretaries of the animal husbandry and dairying departments.
The outcomes of the AMUL model are as follows, which other cooperative societies ought to imitate:
Contribution of cooperative societies to the socioeconomic uplift of impoverished segments in society, as well as the empowerment of women and farmers
The participants must feel a sense of ownership and belonging for a group or programme, such as the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Self Help Groups, etc., to be successful.
It also emphasises the importance of organisational democracy, a positive work environment, and a focus on quality control and customers for the long-term expansion and success of a company.
The concept of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO) is also supported and strengthened in order to give farmers more negotiating power, better market pricing, and simpler access to high-quality inputs.
the importance of staying current in your field by integrating the newest technologies and changing with the times.
being open and responsible to the management and board.
Corporate social responsibility’s significance (CSR).
The Amul approach has been about both farmer empowerment and valuing professional management in organisations operated by and benefiting producers.
As a reflection of the times, the National Dairy Development Board, which helped launch India’s White Revolution, has probably lost all significance. Despite having IAS officers in charge of it after 2014, it does not currently have a permanent chairperson.
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