Mains Q & A 21 January 2023
Q1. What factors affect the locations of the silk industries in India? Explain briefly the changes in these industries’ locations from the 19th century to the present. (250 words).
Paper & Topic: GS I Geography
India has the second-largest silk industry in the world, behind China. India produced a total of roughly 23,000 tonnes of silk in the years 2011–2012. India produces four different types of silk: mulberry, eri, tasar, and muga. The three southern States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu generate the majority of the 80% of mulberry silk produced in the country. Sericulture provides 63 lakh people in rural and semi-urban parts of India with a lucrative job. Nearly 97% of the raw silk produced in India is produced in the five states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Jammu & Kashmir.
Location of India’s silk manufacturing depends on the following elements:
Any type of soil, including the slopes of hills and the edges of woods, is suitable for the growth of mulberry plants. They can withstand drought and grow in areas of East and NE India that are not irrigated or part of the “green revolution.”
Sericulture does not involve physical labour. You can grow silkworms if you’re a woman or an older person. Before the jute market collapsed, farmers in the Eastern States produced jute instead of sericulture.
Using basic technology and low-tech tools, small-scale and marginal farmers as well as tribal members can perform capital.
Market: Silk saris are still in high demand in India. Due to the rise of e-commerce, the demand has now increased globally.
Technology: The ability to process silkworms more quickly has allowed for the mass production of a wide range of goods.
From the 19th century until the present, several industries have changed locations in:
Bangalore is the location of the Central Silk Board. The Japanese International Cooperation Agency also exchanges technological expertise (JICA).
Equipment: Tools used in the reeling and re-reeling, cooking, and drying processes. The transition from handlooms to machine looms has improved the mass production of silk sarees.
Government policy: Cooperatives and SHGs, which are more effective and productive than individual farmers, are used to carry out sericulture.
Extension services: As a secondary source of income, the government provides training and extension services to farmers.
Export restrictions have aided in the growth of the world market.
E-Commerce, a sector of the economy, is where silk sarees are sold online.
Due of India’s high labour force participation rate (LFPR), which has the potential to significantly expand the number of jobs available for women, boost farmer income, and adopt ecologically friendly practises that preserve biodiversity, sericulture is a feasible alternative.
Q2. The National Building Code of India, 2016, needs to be modified in view of growing urbanisation and the concept of smart cities in order to solve the problems associated with fire incidents in cities. Analyse. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS I Urbanisation related issues
Large and small building fires have occurred in India before. It had been expected that India’s response to the Uphaar accident would serve as a wake-up call regarding safety lapses.
In 2019, 330 people lost their lives in fires in commercial buildings, compared to 6,329 per 100,000 for residential or dwelling buildings, according to the National Crime Records Bureau.
Principal Fire Causes:
Although state governments are frequently criticised for failing to enforce building safety requirements and for failing to instal cutting-edge technologies in public buildings, electrical failures are frequently listed as the primary cause of fires.
Hospital ICUs are a serious fire hazard since they are oxygen-suffused and must comply to tight requirements.
Fire Safety Rules in India:
Fire service is included as both a governmental subject and a municipal duty in the Constitution’s XII schedule.
In India, the national building code includes provisions for fire safety.
Part 4 of the Code deals with Fire and Life.
It recommends situating buildings in accordance with their intended purpose in specified zones to guarantee that industrial and dangerous structures do not mix with residential, institutional, office, and commercial buildings.
The code mainly applies to the following areas:
Fire prevention: Includes concerns with building design and fire safety in relation to construction. It offers suggestions and guidelines for utilising components and layouts that lower the likelihood of devastating fires.
Life Security: This refers to building and occupant features that must be present to minimise the risk of fire, smoke, fumes, or panic attacks to people’s lives. In the event of a fire and other comparable circumstances, it also discusses life safety provisions.
Fire Defense: Depending on the classes and types of buildings, this section provides important accessories, their related components, and instructions for choosing the right installations and equipment to protect the building from fire.
State laws and administrative regulations:
Maharashtra, which has experienced numerous fires, has had a fire prevention and life safety measures act in place since 2008. The Act’s Section 3 mandates the NBC’s regulations.
Kerala: To acquire a NOC from the fire department, hospitals between 15 and 24 metres tall must provide thorough design and infrastructure specifications.
Tamil Nadu: The completion of a fire licence application is required by the Fire Service Act read with municipal law, however NBC Code compliance is not mentioned.
The National Fire Protection Association (NDMA) has put forth standards for fire safety in public buildings, including hospitals, that include elements of the NBC, additional design recommendations for maintaining a minimum amount of open safety space, protected exit mechanisms, designated staircases, and crucial drills for carrying out evacuations.
Model Building Bye-Laws for 2016:
The Ministry of Urban Development’s “Model Building By-Laws 2016” circular explains the legal framework and engineering specifications to be taken into account before beginning any construction project in India.
Redesign is Necessary:
Due to inadequate occupational safety standards and lax enforcement of building regulations, India experiences fires more frequently than other nations.
Dense residential growth, tangled wiring, and a lack of application of fire safety standards are a few things that contribute to the country’s fire hazard-related destruction.
Lack of knowledge: Despite the fact that many buildings and structures have firefighting equipment installed, very few individuals are knowledgeable of how to use it.
Lack of maintenance causes the equipment to malfunction.
There are no unified fire services: Although they are absent in the majority of states, unified fire services offer the guidelines and training needed to fight fires.
Funding issues: A shortage of funding is impeding the development of firefighting technology.
How to Proceed:
The Supreme Court mandated that all States complete fire safety audits at designated COVID-19 hospitals by December 2020.
The Fire Safety Audit seems to be a practical instrument for evaluating a company’s fire safety requirements. India as a whole should be required to submit to an annual fire safety audit by outside organisations.
It is evident that State forces lack the manpower necessary to verify NBC compliance in the locations where it is required as well as other safety regulations.
Another choice is to require substantial fire liability insurance for all public structures. This would provide protection for users and tourists and trigger external safety inspections.
We require guidelines or a structure in order to conduct an exhaustive risk assessment.
The government ought to continue supporting the fire departments with money and other resources.
The general population must be made more aware of the importance of fire safety and prevention measures.
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