Mains Q & A 26 January 2023
Q1. Given that more young adults are enrolling in higher education and that more of their professional goals do not match their educational backgrounds, the new National Employment Policy must take these trends into consideration. Discuss. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS II Social Sector related issues
According to a number of studies, the average age of the population in India is less than 30 years, and more than 62% of the population is between the ages of 15 and 59. India is currently experiencing a “demographic dividend,” which is the potential for economic expansion depending on the distribution of the population’s ages. The government is forming an expert committee to create a national employment policy. The facilitation of the creation of sufficient and productive jobs is its illusive goal.
Future-focused policymaking should take the following factors into account:
Second, the geographical employment profile of young adults; and third, the less well-known but very insightful employment-to-population ratio (aged 20-29 years).
Although it is more frequently used, employment as a percentage of the labour force does not adequately capture India’s demographic challenge.
On the other hand, changes in the employment-to-population ratio show whether the economy is producing jobs quickly enough to keep a steady share of the workforce.
It is common practise to assess employment trends for the entire working-age population without taking the age distribution of the workforce into account.
Young people regularly switch jobs, are just starting their careers, some are still in school, and their skills—or lack thereof—are more relevant to new job duties. Analysis of changes in the labour market by policymakers should pay particular attention to young adults.
A sectoral analysis finds that the pattern in economies with more developed economies is paralleled by a sharp decline in young adults working on farms.
Both the unemployment rate and the proportion of young people enrolled in higher education have gone up.
Young people seek aspirational careers and are ready to wait for one that matches them, which generally results in higher unemployment rates as education levels grow. The new employment policy needs to take this aspirational factor into account. A strong focus on labor-intensive manufacturing is unlikely to appeal to educated millennials. Alternately, India’s educational system needs to be altered to emphasise skill-based employment and manufacturing labour more, while decreasing the importance of formal higher education.
Young individuals’ objectives might not be reflected in employment trends. A new employment policy should therefore pay close attention to the characteristics of the Indian young adult labour market.
Q2. There are other key factors that need be taken into account in addition to maintaining law and order, which is a critical step in halting the rise of left-wing extremism. Critical analysis (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS III Internal Security
The West Bengali Naxalbari region of the 1960s was the birthplace of the Left Wing Extremism (LWE) movement.
These Maoist insurgents started running a separate government in parts of central and eastern India. They murder citizens, destroy government buildings, and kidnap businesspeople. The LWE movement has recently seen a decrease, nonetheless, as a result of the policy change implemented by succeeding governments. According to recent statements made by the Home Minister, the Maoists’ geographic presence has shrunk from 96 districts across 10 States in 2010 to 41 today.
At least 26 Naxals were killed in a recent confrontation with the Maharashtra police in the Gadchiroli area.
Top reasons for radical Leftism:
Aspects of politics:
The characteristics of tribal peoples and the democratic system’s disregard for them were among the key reasons of such uprisings.
lack of political influence in India to provide possibilities for structural uplift to the underprivileged sectors of society in the affected states.
Absence of the tribal community from politics.
The entry of mining companies into tribal lands and forests threatens the way of life of the tribes by contributing to underdevelopment, economic inequality, and poverty in the Naxal-affected areas.
Indigenous tribal population deprived of their lands and separated from their customary sources of subsistence
The benefits of resource exploitation are not shared with the indigenous population.
Environmental degradation in the form of the depletion of land and water resources is a result of mining and industrial activity.
lack of vital infrastructure food, freedom, education, and sanitization are only a few of the amenities that are lacking.
The socially deprived tribals make up the majority of the Naxalites’ support base as a result of inequity, illiteracy, and a lack of opportunities.
In the Fifth Schedule territories, laws that forbid the transfer of tribal territory to non-tribals are not being fully enforced.
The FRA of 2006 does not always recognise traditional land rights.
removal of individuals from areas where native peoples have historically resided.
Forced evictions resulting from mining, irrigation, and electrical developments without adequate rehabilitation strategies. As a result, livelihoods were lost.
large-scale land purchase for “public interests” without providing fair compensation or restoring the property.
To suppress the Maoist insurgency, government action is necessary:
In order to improve police infrastructure, the plan calls for the construction of secure police stations, training facilities, and police housing (residential), as well as the provision of mobile command posts, modern weaponry, communication equipment, and forensic setups, among other things.
The split of law enforcement and investigation, as well as the creation of separate wings for social and cybercrime in some jurisdictions, are among the administrative changes.
The National Intelligence Grid is being pushed, the control room is being modernised, the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System (CCTNS) is being hastened, and new technology is being included into policing.
Social Integration: The State Governments have a policy of surrender and rehabilitation, even though the Central Government supports their efforts through the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme for LWE Affected States.
Guns and/or ammo can be returned for further rewards.
The inmates are also provided with a monthly stipend and vocational training for a maximum of 36 months.
The 2011–12 initiative “Skill Development: Skill Development in 34 Areas Affected by Left Wing Extremism” aims to establish ITIs and Skill Development Centers in LWE-affected districts.
Rapid improvements in road connectivity and communication are required in the LWE-affected districts. g.: Mobile towers are being built in remote areas.
Police officers’ emotional intelligence rises thanks to community policing, which also improves interactions with citizens. To give four examples, I the Janamaithri Suraksha Padhathi in Kerala, II the Friends of Police Movement (FOP) in Tamil Nadu, and IV the Suraksha Setu – Safe City Surat Project Network communication should be strengthened and expertise and information should be shared to improve police operations.
Monitoring and surveillance are improved with the standardisation, application, and integration of private security surveillance systems.
The Indian government believes that a comprehensive strategy that prioritises security- and development-related efforts can successfully address the LWE issue.
For the maintenance of law and order, states are necessary.
As a result, emphasis should be given to strengthening and modernising local police units. Local forces have the ability to effectively and efficiently neutralise the LWE organisations.
In light of the nation’s internal security concerns, the Kargil Review Committee (KRC) report stressed the necessity to reorganise the role and responsibilities of the paramilitary forces, particularly with regard to command and control and leadership activities.
A mostly security-driven policy rife with human rights violations has further strengthened the alienation of the poor in these areas.
Both mistakes that have contributed to the continued cycle of violence in some areas and successes like the expansion of welfare and rights frameworks in containing the movement must be continually learned from by the Union government and the States.
If the Maoists are to be persuaded to halt their military assault, civil society must give tribal people and peace activists more sway.
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