Quiz Questions 28 January 2023
#1. Consider the following statements about Mahawari System: 1.It was devised by Thomas Munro, Governor of Madras 2.The estimated revenue demand was fixed on village basis and it was to be revised periodically 3.The system was prevalent in North Western Provinces of the Bengal Presidency 4.Village headman was made responsible for collecting the revenue and paying it to the Company Select the correct answer using the code given below:
#2. The outflow of gold & silver from Britain slowed after the Battle of Plassey, and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani because:
Finally, in 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the Company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal. The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal. This solved a major problem that the Company had earlier faced. From the early eighteenth century its trade with India had expanded. But it had to buy most of the goods in India with gold and silver imported from Britain. This was because at this time Britain had no goods to sell in India. The outflow of gold from Britain slowed after the Battle of Plassey, and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani. Now revenues from India could finance Company expenses. These revenues could be used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
#3. Calico Act enacted by British governement in 1720 is related to:
By the early eighteenth century, worried by the popularity of Indian textiles, wool and silk makers in England began protesting against the import of Indian cotton textiles. In 1720, the British government enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles – chintz – in England. Interestingly, this Act was known as the Calico Act.
#4. With reference to the condition of agriculture prevailing during British Rule, consider the following statements: 1.Realizing the major source of revenue from agriculture, British administration prioritized irrigation development and public works department. 2.Inorganic fertilizers and organic manure were widely used. 3.British economic policies lead to subdivision and fragmentation of land. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Statement 1 is incorrect as British Administration apthetic attitude towards agriculture was one of the prime factors behind its backwardness and widespread poverty. Even though bulk of the revenue was realized from agriculture it did not take any efforts to improve the same.Statement 2 is incorrect as use of inorganic fertilizers was unknown and bulk of natural manure was wasted. This indicated backward state of agriculture practises.Statement 3 is correct. The overcrowding of agriculture and increase in the subinfeudation led to subdivision and fragmentation of land into small holdings most of which could not maintain their cultivators.
#5. Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding land revenue policy of British? 1.Land revenue policies made the land saleable, mortgageable and alienable. 2.Land revenue was periodically revised in ryotwari areas but fixed in Mahalwari System. 3.Areas covered by Mahalwari system included North Western Provinces and parts of Punjab. Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Statement 1 is correct because Land revenue policies made land all over the country saleable, mortgage able and alienable. Cultivator was left to status of tenant at the mercy of zamindar or government whose land could be taken away if he failed to pay revenue at time.Statement 2 is not correct because even in Mahalwari system revenue was periodically revised.Statement 3 is correct. Mahalwari system was implemented mainly in ganga valley, north-western provinces, parts of central India and Punjab.
#6. Consider the following statements about Permanent Settlements: 1.The rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars 2.Zamindars were to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company 3.The amount to be paid was fixed permanently, that is, it was not to be increased ever in future 4.Zamindars started investing in the improvement of land Select the correct answer using the code given below:
By the terms of the settlement, the rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars. They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid was fixed permanently, that is, it was not to be increased ever in future. It was felt that this would ensure a regular flow of revenue into the Company’s coffers and at the same time encourage the zamindars to invest in improving the land.The Permanent Settlement, however, created problems. Company officials soon discovered that the zamindars were in fact not investing in the improvement of land. The revenue that had been fixed was so high that the zamindars found it difficult to pay. Anyone who failed to pay the revenue lost his zamindari.
#7. With reference to Tribal uprisings during the british rule, consider the following statements: 1.The tribal revolts were often led by religious and charismatic leaders promising divine intervention. 2.Tribals indiscriminately attacked the outsiders Indians or British. 3.They often used violence and armed resistance as method of protest. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Statement 1 is correct. Often, religious and charismatic leaders’ messiahs emerged and promised divine intervention and an end to their suffering at the hands of the outsiders, and asked their fellow tribals to rise and rebel against foreign authority. Most of these leaders claimed to derive their authority from God. They also often claimed that they possessed magical powers, for example, the power to make the enemies bullets ineffective.Statement 2 is incorrect. Not all outsiders were attacked as enemies. Often there was no violence against the non-tribal poor, who worked in tribal villages in supportive economic roles, or who had social relations with the tribals such as telis, gwalas, lohars, carpenters, potters, weavers, washermen, barbers, drummers, and bonded labourers and domestic servants of the outsiders. Statement 3 is correct. Protest often took the form of spontaneous attacks on outsiders, looting their property and expelling them from their villages. Clashes with authorities were violent and tribals resorted to armed resistance as well.
#8. Who among the following was not a feature of Indian agricultural economy in 19th Century?
The cultivator had neither the means nor any incentive to invest in agriculture. The zamindar had no roots in the villages, while the Government spent little on agricultural, technical or mass education.All this, together with fragmentation of land due to sub-infeudation, made it difficult to introduce modern technology which caused a perpetually low level of productivity.
In the latter half of the nineteenth century, another significant trend was the emergence of the commercialisation of agriculture. So far, agriculture’ had been a way of life rather than a business enterprise. Now agriculture began to be influenced by commercial considerations. Certain specialised crops began to be grown not for consumption in the village but for sale in the national and even international markets.
#9. Consider the following statements regarding the building of railways in India: 1.It was coordinated with India's industrial growth revolution. 2.It was mainly funded by Indian investors. Select the incorrect statements using the codes below?
The nationalist analysts exposed the force of British arguments that the growth of foreign trade and railways implied development for India. They argued back that the pattern of foreign trade was unfavourable to India. It relegated India to a position of importer of finished goods and exporter of raw materials and foodstuffs. The development of railways, they argued, was, not coordinated with India’s industrial needs and it ushered in a commercial rather than an industrial revolution. The net effect of the railways was to enable foreign goods to outsell indigenous products. Further, the benefits from impetus to steel, machinery and capital investment in railways accrued to the British. G.V. Joshi remarked, “Expenditure on railways should be seen as an Indian subsidy to British industries.”
#10. Under Ryotwari system the settlement was made with:
In the British territories in the south there was a similar move away from the idea of Permanent Settlement. The new system that was devised came to be known as the ryotwar (or ryotwari ). It was tried on a small scale by Captain Alexander Read in some of the areas that were taken over by the Company after the wars with Tipu Sultan. Subsequently developed by Thomas Munro, this system was gradually extended all over south India. Read and Munro felt that in the south there were no traditional zamindars. The settlement, they argued, had to be made directly with the cultivators (ryots) who had tilled the land for generations.
#11. Which of the following statement are correct with respect to the ‘Permanent settlement’: 1.The Land Revenue was fixed permanently. 2.The post of Zamindars was made permanent. 3.The zamindars used to collect the revenue and paid it to the company. Select the correct answer using the codes below?
The post of Zamindars wasn’t permanent. Their land was confiscated if they were unable to pay the already fixed revenue.
#12. Which of the following are communities that specialised in weaving? 1.Tanti 2.Momin 3.Chhipigars 4.Devangs 5.Kaikollar Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Weavers often belonged to communities that specialised in weaving. Their skills were passed on from one generation to the next. The tanti weavers of Bengal, the julahas or momin weavers of north India, sale and kaikollar and devangs of south India are some of the communities famous for weaving. Hence 1, 2, 4 and 5 are weaver community.For printed cloth the weavers needed the help of specialist block printers known as chhipigars. Hence 3 is not weaver community. Hence Answer is C.
#13. Consider the following statements with respect to the Permanent Settlement and choose the correct ones: 1. The Permanent Settlement was made with the rajas and taluqdars of Bengal. 2. They were now classified as zamindars, and they had to pay the revenue demand that was fixed in perpetuity. 3. In terms of this definition, the zamindar were landowners in the village and also revenue Collector of the state. Select the correct answer using the code below?
The estates of the Burdwan raj were not the only ones sold during the closing years of the eighteenth century. Over 75 per cent of the zamindaris changed hands after the Permanent Settlement. In introducing the Permanent Settlement, British officials hoped to resolve the problems they had been facing since the conquest of Bengal. By the 1770s, the rural economy in Bengal was in crisis, with recurrent famines and declining agricultural output. Officials felt that agriculture, trade and the revenue resources of the state could all be developed by encouraging investment in agriculture. This could be done by securing rights of property and permanently fixing the rates of revenue demand. If the revenue demand of the state was permanently fixed, then the Company could look forward to a regular flow of revenue, while entrepreneurs could feel sure of earning a profit from their investment, since the state would not siphon it off by increasing its claim. The process, officials hoped, would lead to the emergence of a class of yeomen farmers and rich landowners who would have the capital and enterprise to improve agriculture. Nurtured by the British, this class would also be loyal to the Company. The problem, however, lay in identifying individuals who could both improve agriculture and contract to pay the fixed revenue to the state. After a prolonged debate amongst Company officials, the Permanent Settlement was made with the rajas and taluqdars of Bengal. They were now classified as zamindars, and they had to pay the revenue demand that was fixed in perpetuity. In terms of this definition, the zamindar was not a landowner in the village, but a revenue Collector of the state.
#14. Consider the following with respect to the Ryotwari Settlement and choose the correct ones: 1.The revenue system that was introduced in the Bombay Deccan came to be known as the ryotwari settlement. 2.The average income from different types of soil was estimated, the revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state. 3.The lands were resurveyed every 30 years and the revenue rates increased. Select the correct answer using the code below?
The revenue system that was introduced in the Bombay Deccan came to be known as the ryotwari settlement. Unlike the Bengal system, the revenue was directly settled with the ryot. The average income from different types of soil was estimated, the revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state. The lands were resurveyed every 30 years and the revenue rates increased. Therefore, the revenue demand was no longer permanent.
#15. Company introduced the Permanent Settlement in 1793 for which of the following reasons: 1.To ensure a regular flow of revenue 2.To encourage the zamindars to invest in improving the land 3.For recognising rajas and taluqdars as zamindars 4.For the improvement of agriculture Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Most Company officials began to feel that investment in land had to be encouraged and agriculture had to be improved. How was this to be done? After two decades of debate on the question, the Company finally introduced the Permanent Settlement in 1793. By the terms of the settlement, the rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars. They were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The amount to be paid was fixed permanently, that is, itwas not to be increased ever in future. It was felt that this would ensure a regular flow of revenue into the Company’s coffers and at the same time encourage the zamindars to invest in improving the land. Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased, the zamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.
#16. Consider the following and choose the ones correctly matched: 1.Adhiyars: a group of rich peasants were consolidating their position in the villages. 2.Jotedars: sharecroppers who brought their own ploughs, laboured in the fields. Select the correct answer using the code below?
While many zamindars were facing a crisis at the end of the eighteenth century, a group of rich peasants were consolidating their position in the villages. In Francis Buchanan’s survey of the Dinajpur district in North Bengal we have a vivid description of this class of rich peasants known as jotedars. By the early nineteenth century, jotedars had acquired vast areas of land – sometimes as much as several thousand acres. They controlled local trade as well as moneylending, exercising immense power over the poorer cultivators of the region. A large part of their land was cultivated through sharecroppers (adhiyars or bargadars) who brought their own ploughs, laboured in the field, and handed over half the produce to the jotedars after the harvest.
The jotedars were most powerful in North Bengal, although rich peasants and village headmen were emerging as commanding figures in the countryside in other parts of Bengal as well. In some places they were called haoladars, elsewhere they were known as gantidars or mandals. Their rise inevitably weakened zamindari authority.
#17. Which of the following factors became the basis for the economic critique of colonialism by early nationalists? 1.Ruin of traditional handicraft 2.Home charges 3.Manner of development of Railways Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Indian intellectuals of the first half of the 19th century had adopted a positive attitude towards British rule in the hope that Britain would help modernize India. The process of disillusionment set in gradually after 1860 Leaders like DadabhaiNaoroji, Justice M G Ranade and R C Dutta propounded the drain theory associated with the colonial rule. The early leaders highlighted the following issues due to colonial rule: 1) progressive decline and ruin of India’s traditional handicrafts. 2) railways had not been coordinated with India’s industrial needs. 3) saw foreign capital as an unmitigated evil which exploited and impoverished India. 4) criticized the colonial pattern of finance. Taxes were so raised, they averred, as to overburden the poor while letting the rich, especially the foreign capitalists and bureaucrats, go scot-free. 5) On the expenditure side, they pointed out that the emphasis was on serving Britain‘s imperial needs while the developmental and welfare departments were starved. 6) The nationalist leaders pointed out that a large part of India‘s capital and wealth was drained to Britain in the form of salaries and pensions of British civil and military officials working in India known as home charges.
#18. With reference to British policies in India, what is the term 'Imperial Preferences' related to?
British adopted discriminatory approach towards Indian Industries from the very beginning. However, with the growth of National Movement by 1920 and 30’s the extensive pressure forced Britishers to grant tariff protection to Indian Industries. However even in its implementation discrimination was being pursued. Indian owned industries were given inadequate protection whereas british imports were given special privileges under the stated system of Imperial preferences. Hence (c) is the correct answer.
#19. Which of the following statements is/are correct? 1.The first jute mill was set up near Odisha. 2.After Partition, the jute producing area remained in India but three-fourth of the jute mills went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan). Select the correct answer using the code below:
The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra. After Partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan).
#20. For which of the following reasons Britishers wanted tribal groups to settle down and become peasant cultivators: 1.Settled peasants were easier to control and administer than people who were always on the move 2.British wanted a regular revenue source for the state 3.British wanted to stop Shifting cultivation Select the correct answer using the code given below:
The British were uncomfortable with groups who moved about and did not have a fixed home. They wanted tribal groups to settle down and become peasant cultivators. Settled peasants were easier to control and administer than people who were always on the move. The British also wanted a regular revenue source for the state. So they introduced land settlements – that is, they measured the land, defined the rights of each individual to that land, and fixed the revenue demand for the state. Some peasants were declared landowners, others tenants.
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