Quiz Questions 21 February 2023
#1. In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with which of the following factors: 1) Terrace cultivation 2) Deforestation 3) Tropical climate Select the correct answer code:
- Terrace cultivation results in soil conservation and tropical climate is not the reason for soil erosion.
#2. “A large tree shades a small plant, retarding the growth of the small plant. The small plant has no effect on the large tree” this example is related to which type of biotic interaction:
- Amensalism: One species is harmed, the other is unaffected.
- Example: A large tree shades a small plant, retarding the growth of the small plant.
- The small plant has no effect on the large tree.
- Commensalism: one species benefits, the other is unaffected.
- Example: cow dung provides food and shelter to dung beetles.
- The beetles have no effect on the cows.
- Competition: both species are harmed by the interaction.
- Example: if two species eat the same food, and there isn’t enough for both, both may have access to less food than they would if alone.
- They both suffer a shortage of food.
- Neutralism: There is no net benefit or harm to either species. Perhaps in some inter-specific interactions, the costs and benefits experienced by each partner are exactly the same so that they sum to zero.
- It is not clear how often this happens in nature.
- Neutralism is also sometimes described as the, relationship between two species inhabiting the same space and using the same resources, but that have no effect on each other.
- In this case, one could argue that they · aren’t interacting at all.
#3. Mangroves, saltwater crocodile, Indian python, wild pigs and rhesus monkeys are found in which of the following national park:
- Flora and Fauna of Bhitarkanika National Park:
- Floraà Mangrove species, casuarinas, and grasses like the indigo bush.
- Faunaà The Park is home to the saltwater crocodile, Indian python, black ibis, wild boar, rhesus monkey, chital, darter, cobra, monitor lizard. Olive ridley turtles’ nest on Gahirmatha and other nearby beaches.
- Bhitarkanika has one of the largest populations of saltwater crocodile in India.
#4. The countries identified as megadiverse by Conservation International are: 1) India 2) China 3) Russia 4) South Africa Select the correct answer code:
- The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbor the majority of Earth’s species and high numbers of endemic species.
- Conservation International identified 17 megadiverse countries in 1998.
- Many of them are located in, or partially in, tropical or subtropical regions.
- They are: Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, United States, Venezuela
#5. The National Green Tribunal can hear cases related to which of the following Acts: 1) The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. 2) The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. 3) The Biological Diversity Act, 2002. 4. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Select the correct answer code:
- The NGT has the power to hear all civil cases relating to environmental issues and questions that are linked to the implementation of laws listed in Schedule I of the NGT Act.
- These include the following:
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
- The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
- The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
- The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
- The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
- The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
- This means that any violations pertaining only to these laws, or any order / decision taken by the Government under these laws can be challenged before the NGT.
- Importantly, the NGT has not been vested with powers to hear any matter relating to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and various laws enacted by States relating to forests, tree preservation etc.
- Therefore, specific and substantial issues related to these laws cannot be raised before the NGT.
#6. Which of the following add/adds carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth: 1) Volcanic Eruptions 2) Respiration 3) Photosynthesis 4) Decay of Organic Matter Select the correct answer code:
- Volcanic eruptions emit water vapour and toxic gases into the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
- Photosynthesis takes in the carbon dioxide produced by all breathing organisms and reintroduces oxygen into the atmosphere.
- Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms’ activities.
- Decay of organic matter or putrefaction, process whereby heterotrophic organisms, including some bacteria, fungi, saprophytic plants, and lower animals, utilize the remains of once-living tissue as a source of nutrition.
- In the decomposition process, different products are released: carbon dioxide (CO2), energy, water, plant nutrients and re-synthesized organic carbon compounds.
#7. . Consider the following statements regarding Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: 1) It is an additional agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 2) The protocol establishes procedures for regulating the import and export of living modified organism from one country to another. Which of the above statements is/are correct:
- The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity effective since 2003.
- The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
#8. Which among the following organisms are involved in nitrogen cycle: 1) Rhizobium 2) Nitrobacter 3) Nitrosomonos 4) Azatobacter Select the correct answer code:
- All the above organisms involved in nitrogen cycle.
#9. Ecological Succession is generally characterized by: 1) Increased productivity 2) Decreased niche development 3) Increased complexity of food webs \ Select the correct answer code:
- Ecological succession, the process by which the structure of a biological community evolves over time.
- The time scale can be decades (for example, after a wildfire), or even millions of years after a mass extinction.
- The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through increasing complexity until it becomes stable or self-perpetuating as a climax community.
- Two different types of succession—primary and secondary—have been distinguished.
- Primary succession occurs in essentially lifeless areas—regions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier.
- Secondary succession occurs in areas where a community that previously existed has been removed; it is typified by smaller-scale disturbances that do not eliminate all life and nutrients from the environment.
- Increased niche development is the characteristic feature of Ecological succession.
#10. Consider the following statements about UNFCCC: 1) The UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit. 2) The UNFCCC established a framework for action to stabilise concentrations of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. 3) The framework sets binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries. 4) Nearly all member states of the United Nations have ratified the convention. Which of the above statements is/are correct:
- The UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, which marked the beginning of the international community’s first concerted effort to confront the problem of climate change. Known also as the Rio Convention, the UNFCCC established a framework for action to stabilise concentrations of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere.
- The UNFCCC entered into force in 1994, and nearly all of the world’s nations—a total of 197—have ratified.
- The framework sets non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms.
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