Quiz Questions 22 February 2023
#1. Consider the following statements regarding Nitrogen pollution: 1) Since Nitrates cannot penetrate deep into the soil they pollute only surface water and not groundwater. 2) Nitrogen dioxide is a greenhouse gas. 3) Agriculture remains the largest contributor to nitrogen emissions. Which of the above statements is/are incorrect:
- Nitrates not only affect surface water but also pollute groundwater sources.
- Nitrous oxide (N2O) gas should not be confused with nitric oxide (NO) or nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
- Neither nitric oxide nor nitrogen dioxide are greenhouse gases.
- Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas.
- Nitrogen particles make up the largest fraction of PM2.5, the class of pollutants closely linked to cardiovascular and respiratory illness
- Though agriculture remains the largest contributor to nitrogen emissions, the non-agricultural emissions of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide are growing rapidly, with sewage and fossil-fuel burning — for power, transport and industry — leading the trend.
#2. Which among the following was the first organized expression of the Indian National Movement on an All-India Scale?
The Indian Association of Calcutta was the most important of pre- Congress associations and aimed to (i) create a strong public opinion on political questions, and (ii) unify Indian people on a common political programme. However the Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, was the first organized expression of the Indian national movement on an all-India scale. All the pre-Congress associations (including Indian Association) were dominated by wealthy and aristocratic elements and were provincial or local in character.
#3. Consider the following statements with respect to the Brahmo Samaj and choose the correct ones: 1. It was founded by Keshab Chandra Sen. 2. It was against the spread of western education. 3. It worked towards greater freedom and equality for women. Select the correct answer using the codes below
Raja Rammohun Roy (1772-1833) founded a reform association known as the Brahmo Sabha (later known as the Brahmo Samaj) in Calcutta. Rammohun Roy was keen to spread the knowledge of Western education in the country and bring about greater freedom and equality for women.
#4. Which of the following best defines the Biosphere:
- The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere.
- The gaseous layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere, where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases are found.
- Water covers a very big area of the earth’s surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere.
- The Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is, ice, water and water vapour.
- The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.
#5. Consider the following statements about Widow remarriage: 1. Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar's effort led to passage of law in 1856 permitting widow remarriage 2. VeerasalingamPantulu formed an association in Telugu speaking areas of Madras presidency for widow remarriage 3. Arya Samaj, an organisation that attempted to reform Hinduism, was against widow remarriage Select the correct answer using the code given below:
For instance, one of the most famous reformers, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, used the ancient texts to suggest that widows could remarry. His suggestion was
adopted by British officials, and a law was passed in 1856 permitting widow remarriage. By the second half of the nineteenth century, the movement in favour of widow remarriage spread to other parts of the country. In the Telugu-speaking areas of the Madras Presidency, VeerasalingamPantulu formed an association for widow remarriage. Hence statement 1 and 2 are correct.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati, who founded the reform association called Arya Samaj, also supported widow remarriage. Hence Statement 3 is not correct.
#6. Consider the following statements about Raja Rammohan Roy: 1. Roy opposed the sati system. 2. He was against polytheism of Hinduism and incorporated message of Christ into Hinduism. 3. He was against the fixation of maximum rents (or Permanent Settlement) Which of the above statement(s) is/are true?
Roy was a determined crusader against the inhuman practice of sati. He started his anti-sati struggle in 1818 and he cited sacred texts to prove his contention that no religion sanctioned the burning alive of widows, besides appealing to humanity, reason and compassion. He also visited the cremation grounds, organized vigilance groups and filed counter petitions to the Government during his struggle against sati.
As a reformist ideologue, Roy believed in the modern scientific approach and principles of human dignity and social equality. He put his faith in monotheism. He wrote Gift to Monotheists (1809) and translated into Bengali the Vedas and the five Upanishads to prove his conviction that ancient Hindu texts support monotheism. In Precepts of Jesus (1820), he tried to separate the moral and philosophical message of the New Testament, which he praised, from its miracle stories. He earned the wrath of missionaries over his advocacy to incorporate the message of Christ in Hinduism.
Roy condemned oppressive practices of Bengali zamindars and demanded fixation of maximum rents i.e Permanent settlement. He also demanded abolition of taxes on taxfree lands. He called for a reduction of export duties on goods abroad and abolition of the East India Company’s trading rights.
#7. Consider the following statements with regard to Olive Ridley turtles: 1) They are found in warm waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans. 2) They are herbivores and thrive exclusively on algae and sea grasses. 3) Odisha coast is one of the largest mass nesting sites in the world. Which of the above statements is/are correct:
- The olive ridley is predominantly carnivorous, especially in immature stages of the lifecycle.
- Animal prey consists of protochordates or invertebrates, which can be caught in shallow marine waters or estuarine habitats.
- Common prey items of Olive Ridely Turtle include jellyfish, tunicates, sea urchins, bryozoans, bivalves, snails, shrimp, crabs, rock lobsters, and sipunculid worms.
- They are found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, but also in the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean.
- This turtle and the related Kemps ridley turtle are best known for their unique mass nesting called arribada, where thousands of females come together on the same beach to lay eggs.
- The coast of Odisha in India is the largest mass nesting site for the olive ridley, followed by the coasts of Mexico and Costa Rica.
#8. Consider the following statements: 1. Women's suffrage movement, which got strengthened during the First World War, was meant to eradicate women's abuse at workplace. 2. American women got the right to vote earlier than women in the UK got to vote on the same terms as men. Select the correct answer using the code given below:
All over Europe and USA, women and the poor have had to fight for participation in government. Women’s struggle to vote got strengthened during the First World War. This movement is called the women’s suffrage movement as the term suffrage usually means right to vote.
American women got the right to vote in 1920 while women in the UK got to vote on the same terms as men some years later, in 1928.
#9. Consider the following statements about Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs): 1) As per the provisions under Environment Protection Act, 1986, the Centre can notify an ecologically important area as Eco-Sensitive Zones. 2) ESZs are formed to serve as “shock absorber” for protected areas. 3) The activities in the ESZs would be of regulatory nature rather than prohibitive nature. Which of the above statements is/are correct:
- Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFAs) are areas notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
- The purpose of declaring ESZs is to create some kind of “shock absorbers” to the protected areas by regulating and managing the activities around such areas.
- They also act as a transition zone from areas of high protection to areas involving lesser protection.
- The Environment Protection Act, 1986 does not mention the word “Eco-sensitive Zones”.
- The section 3(2)(v) of the Act, says that Central Government can restrict areas in which any industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards.
- Besides the section 5 (1) of this act says that central government can prohibit or restrict the location of industries and carrying on certain operations or processes on the basis of considerations like the biological diversity of an area, maximum allowable limits of concentration of pollutants for an area, environmentally compatible land use, and proximity to protected areas.
- The above two clauses have been effectively used by the government to declare Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas (EFA).
- The same criteria have been used by the government to declare No Development Zones.
- National Board for Wildlife (which replaced the Indian Board for Wildlife in 2002) decided that the “delineation of ESZs would have to be site specific and relate to regulation, rather than prohibition of specific activities”.
#10. Which of the following organisms are common pollinating agents in flowering Plants: 1) Bat 2) Bees 3) Wasp 4) Ants Select the correct answer code:
- A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
- This helps to bring about fertilization of the ovules in the flower by the male gametes from the pollen grains.
- Insect pollinators include bees, (honey bees, solitary species, bumblebees); pollen wasps (Masarinae); ants; flies including bee flies, hoverflies and mosquitoes; lepidopterans, both butterflies and moths; and flower beetles.
- Vertebrates, mainly bats and birds, but also some non-bat mammals (monkeys, lemurs, possums, rodents) and some lizards pollinate certain plants.
- Among the pollinating birds are hummingbirds, honeyeaters and sunbirds with long beaks; they pollinate a number of deep-throated flowers. Humans may also carry out artificial pollination.
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