Mains Q & A 15 March 2023

Mains Q & A 15 March 2023

Q1. Why is it so hard to change hazardous habits? Provide advice on how to get through the limiting beliefs that justify these unhealthy behaviours. (250 Words)


Paper & Topic: GS IV Ethics related topics

Model Answer:


We run the danger of suffering from simple to prevent discomfort when we behave poorly. However, such habits are hard to break because they depend totally on our mental and emotional states. Our physical, mental, and emotional health suffer from these behaviours. The ability to halt undesirable behaviour patterns and prevent them requires a lot of willpower.


Bad behaviour can be difficult to change for a variety of reasons, including:

There is no hope for someone to quit a bad habit if they are not aware that it is a bad one.

A person going through these conditions could become mired in a downward spiral of pessimism, convinced that everything is working against them and that there is nothing they can do to reverse the situation, at which point they give up entirely.

This attitude of surrender is a destructive habit that keeps returning. Being in debt might make you feel as though you are unable to maintain your home, family, and life in general.

Psychiatric illnesses such as depression and ADD could make it tougher to start eliminating bad habits.

An someone who is sad can find it difficult to generate the motivation to make a healthy dinner, which might cause them to order food or eat packaged foods.

This could lead to the development of a bad habit that is challenging to quit.

Breaking habits can be difficult because many of them make us feel good.

Many of us have grown up being exposed to the destructive habit of comparisons. Teachers, parents, and bosses might have made comparisons between us and our peers, as well as between us and their present and former employees.

Those who have a terrible habit of comparing themselves to others have been setting themselves up for failure from the start.

This is a legitimate and valid reason why it can be difficult to stop bad habits. These actions might fulfil desires that have no alternative means of fulfilment.

Someone who experiences physical or psychological limitations, such as a disability or social anxiety, may find it difficult to give up excessive content consumption in favour of healthier practises.

When someone is under stress, they are less likely to have the mental acuity to battle bad behaviours and are more prone to develop them.

Some people may feel extremely defeated due to how difficult it is to stop hazardous behaviours.

Making changes to one’s lifestyle is often required to kick a bad habit, which some people may find challenging while having the desire to do so.

Humans are creatures of habit, so having consistent, calming responses to recurring cues helps us maintain the balance in our life.

Consider about folks who are habituated to smoking a cigarette each time they speak on the phone or indulging in fast food while watching television. They’ll always compare talking on the phone to smoking and watching a screen to eating.

Combating the negative attitudes that support these bad practises involves:

Acceptance: Acknowledging that negative things do, in fact, occur in life, may assist you in overcoming negativity. Since no one’s life is flawless, accept that it is imperfect. It’s important to be realistic rather than pessimistic while dealing with life’s imperfections; try not to dwell on them.

At one time: As our memories tend to favour unpleasant experiences over pleasant ones, it is simple to feel as though things have never turned out. Analyze the past more thoroughly and search for triumphs and enjoyable moments.

Overcoming the fear of failing: We cease working as hard when we are frightened of failing, which only leads to regret.

You don’t require permission: We frequently make judgements that may not be the greatest ones because we want the people around us to approve of what we do. Don’t let your fear of what people might say stop you; you don’t want to live with regret.

The first step in conquering negativity is to stop dwelling on the past. We are powerless to change the past, and dwelling on it keeps you stuck in regret. Focusing on how you can improve the present and the future is more preferable.


Be prepared for slip-ups in your dedication to long-term habit modification. Slip-ups when trying to change behaviour are very normal. Instead of being a reason to give up, look at these failures as a chance to learn what went wrong and how to do things better in the future.

Q2. Startups are the cornerstone of the New India. Examine the ways in which startups have enhanced India's economic standing in this setting. (250 Words)


Paper & Topic: GS III Indian Economy

Model Answer:


A startup is a company that has its headquarters in India, was established less than ten years ago, and brings in less than $100 crore annually. Today, it is widely understood that startups are important drivers of economic expansion and job creation. Through innovation and scalable technology, startups can provide substantial solutions and act as catalysts for socioeconomic development and transformation.



As India approaches its 100th anniversary of independence, the prime minister has declared January 16 to be National Startup Day and referred to startups as the “backbone” of the country’s transformation and the engine driving its economic growth.

The National Startup Day, in the opinion of industry experts, would validate the contribution of startups to the expansion of the country’s GDP and strengthening of India’s standing on the global stage and inspire young talent to select entrepreneurship as their top career option.

Startups’ role to enhancing India’s economic standing:

With 44 unicorns creating $106 billion in value and directly and indirectly supporting 4 million jobs, the Indian startup ecosystem is nothing short of a revolution.

India now has the third-largest start-up ecosystem in the world, with over 15,000 start-ups created in 2020, up from 5000 in 2010.

The nation’s exports of goods and services, a larger base of retail investors as a result of employees earning respectable salaries and benefiting from wealth creation strategies like ESOPs, as well as being a significant consumer market in the global economy, are all examples of how startups contribute to the economy. Startups also significantly increase foreign direct investment (FDI) into an asset class outside of public markets.

In total, 42 private equity and venture capital deals involving new companies raised about $1.7 billion, a more than threefold increase in value.

India is currently rated third internationally in terms of the number of businesses that have achieved unicorn status, significantly behind the US and China but ahead of the UK and Germany.

Also, female business owners have significantly improved the ecosystem that helps startups.

When ancillary industries develop, there are more chances for innovation, expansion, and employment.

Because to consumer-focused businesses like Ola and Flipkart, workers now have access to a second gig economy that gives them the much-needed flexibility.

Due of competition among unicorns, customers benefit from affordable prices.

It has created a climate that has allowed for more money and investments to enter the country in cities like Bengaluru and Delhi.


In India’s entrepreneurial history, startups are currently living in a golden age. Yet the promotion of India as the world’s tech hub must continue to be a major role for the Indian government. It should act as a catalyst and bring together the synergies of the private sector in order to develop for India and the rest of the globe. Since it will draw a lot of talent and money, the startup sector would surely benefit from acknowledgment with a specific observation day.

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