News & Editorial Analysis 10 May 2023
The Hindu News Analysis
1 – Cyclones:
Topic à Geography related issues
According to the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), a cyclonic/low-pressure area is present in the Bay of Bengal and has the potential to intensify into a cyclonic storm.
What does this weather system go by?
In honour of the Red Sea port city that is credited with delivering coffee to the world more over 500 years ago, Yemen proposed the name Cyclone Mocha (pronounced “Mokha”).
What are cyclones exactly, and how do they form?
Meaning A system of low pressure that forms over warm oceans is known as a cyclone.
the process of formationlow pressure will be present where it is hot, and high pressure will be present where it is cold.
As the air rises and warms over hotter areas, low pressure forms over the surface it is covering.
The air rises and blows (in the northern hemisphere) anticlockwise around a depression or low pressure area.
This is due to the Coriolis effect, which is a result of the earth rotating on its axis.
The growth and intensification of cyclones thrive in warm waters, which also support similar systems above the ocean.
Effects As warm air rises and cools, water vapour can condense into clouds, causing rain.
the area that is most at riskDuring the height of summer in May, one of the strongest meteorological systems in the North Indian Ocean region formed over the Bay of Bengal.
Specific dangers, such as storm surge, flooding, extremely strong winds, tornadoes, and lightning, which can result in fatalities and property damage, may be caused by threats.
What names are given to cyclones?
The Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) and regional specialised meteorological centres (RSMCs) assign them names.
Worldwide, there are five and six RSMCs.
The north Indian Ocean cyclones that the IMD designates as an RSMC include the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
The IMD is also mandated to alert 12 other countries in the area when cyclones and storms are developing.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific/World Meteorological Organisation (WMO/ESCAP):
The decision to start naming cyclones in the region was reached in 2000 by the group, which consists of Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
After each country submitted suggestions, the WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones (PTC) finalised the list.
Source à The Hindu
2 – Agricultural Export Import:
Topic à Indian Economy
Both agricultural imports and exports to India achieved record highs in the fiscal year that ended on March 31, 2023.
Agriculture imports and exports à data from the Department of Commerce:
Agriculture’s exports minus imports have fallen somewhat, from $17.82 billion to $17.46 billion.
The surplus is dramatically decreased if fertiliser imports are taken into account, which rose from $14.17 billion in 2021–2022 to $17.21 billion in 2022–2023.
The key determinants are global prices:
The Food Price Index (FPI), which tracks the weighted average of world food prices over a reference period value (2014–16 = 100), has stayed high since 2020–21.
On the international market, India’s agricultural products become more cost-competitive.
India’s Export Profile:
Basmati exports are mainly sent to countries in the Persian Gulf, while non-basmati shipments are sent to other places, including:
Asia (China, Malaysia, Malaysian, Sri Lankan, United Arab Emirates, and Bangladesh).
Africa (including Senegal, the Ivory Coast, and Benin, as well as Somalia and Madagascar).
Thanks to non-basmati rice, India has surpassed Thailand as the world’s top exporter.
The country is now the world’s second-largest sugar exporter behind Brazil.
Indian mills have created markets for both forms of raw sugar among refineries in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq.
Usually from plantations, white people (in China, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and Africa).
Exports of spices have not altered from 2020–21.
Exports of raw cotton, guar gum, and oil meals have also decreased. Guar gum is a thickening agent used in shale oil and gas production.
Description of imports:
Imports provide 10% of India’s needs for pulses and over 60% of its needs for vegetable oil.
India has long been a net exporter of cotton, cashews, and spices; all three of these imports have demonstrated an increased trend.
A weak regulatory framework:
Due to the production of GM Bt cotton and high global pricing, India is now the world’s No. 1 producer (behind China) and No. 2 exporter of natural fibre.
The country used to be a net exporter of cotton, but now it is an importer since the government restricts the use of modern gene technology.
Deficiencies in household crops:
especially in cotton, soyabean, guar gum, oil meal, and soy.
Reduced price competition (in comparison to Guatemala and Vietnam for pepper) is the cause of the rise in spice imports.
Export prohibitions: The government levied a 20% tax on all exports of non-parboiled non-basmati rice and prohibited the export of wheat and broken rice.
Government programmes to encourage the export of agricultural goods:
Agriculture Export Policy for 2018:
In order to increase farmer incomes and establish India as a global player in the industry, it seeks to harness the export potential of Indian agriculture.
The objectives of the Agriculture Export Policy would be carried out through the Department of Commerce’s “District as Export Hub” Initiative.
Transport and Marketing Assistance for Specified Agriculture Products is a central sector scheme to lessen the freight disadvantage for the export of agricultural products.
Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme is referred to as TIES.
Programme for Market Access Initiatives (MAI).
The Export Promotion Schemes under APEDA.
The most recent FPI reading suggests that prices are trending downward globally.
If the rainfall during the ensuing southwest monsoon season is below average, there could be a rise in local food prices, more export restrictions, and higher import liberalisation.
Source à The Hindu
3 – PM Cares Fund:
Topic à Government Policies and Interventions
Over the past three years, foreign contributions to the Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund (PM CARES Fund) have reached a total of Rs 535.44 crore.
PM CARES Fund details:
Launched In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was founded on March 27, 2020, with the intention of ending the disease in India.
Nature It is a private fund that the trustees and the prime minister are free to use at their discretion; it is not recorded in the government of India’s financial statements.
Chairman The prime minister of India serves as the fund’s ex-officio chairman.
Trustees The Ministers of Defence, Home Affairs, and Finance serve as ex-officio trustees.
The PM has suggested Justice K T Thomas (retired), Kariya Munda, and Ratan N Tata as three trustees for the Board.
Contributions to the PM CARES Fund are permitted if:
based on the Income Tax Act of 1961, for a complete exemption.
It must be regarded as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) spending under the 2013 Companies Act.
It is also exempt from the FCRA, and a separate account has been set up to accept donations from outside the United States.
Source à The Hindu
4 – Article 355:
Topic à Indian Constitution
According to reports, the Centre took over security in Manipur by purportedly invoking Article 355, sending 12 companies of the Border Security Force (BSF) and airlifting anti-riot vehicles to the north eastern state.
Following multiple villages and community-specific metropolitan areas being destroyed during tribal conflicts, as well as at least 10 murders at the hands of mobs, the action takes place.
In accordance with Article 355 of the Indian Constitution:
Article 355 of the Indian Constitution grants the Union government the power to defend every state from external aggression and internal turmoil.
Articles 356 and 355 Comparison:
The President is permitted by Article 356 to impose President’s Rule in a state in the event that the constitutional system malfunctions or is destroyed, and the Union government is permitted by Article 355 to:
to protect each Indian state from invasion from the outside and internal unrest
to issue directives to any state so that it abides by the Union’s laws and regulations
Part XVIII of the “Emergency Provisions” of the Indian Constitution.
based on the “duty to protect” tenet that the Constitution enshrines.
Prior to release, the state government should be given a chance to voice its opinions. Only when the state apparatus fails to follow or put into effect any Union legislation or rule may instructions be given. They must be urgent in character and may not last longer than the time required to fix the malfunction.
missing in the Constitution a definition.
Withdrawal The Union government may rescind the measure if conditions return to normal or if the state government asks it.
Failure of the state to comply with Union directives; a threat to India’s security; a threat to India’s unity and integrity resulting from violent behaviour by any group or organisation; and a request for the Union’s help in maintaining public order when the situation in the state cannot be controlled by the state’s own forces.
The scope of legal review:
The satisfaction of the President in applying Article 355 is subject to judicial scrutiny and can be questioned in court if any fundamental rights or constitutional provisions are infringed.
Source à The Hindu
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The Hindu Editorial Analysis
There were around 45.36 crore migrants in India as per the 2011 census. This demonstrates that a sizable portion of the population is excluded from franchise opportunities because of the obligations of their professions or a lack of funds for travel. It makes up about 37% of the nation’s population. This directly contradicts the EC’s mission statement, “No voter left behind.”
Definition of Remote Voting:
Any procedure that enables voters to cast their ballots from locations other than the polling place designated to their registration address is referred to as remote voting. The remote voting location may be local or international. Both manual and automatic voting processes are used in it.
To address this issue, the Election Commission (EC) established a “Committee of Officers on Domestic Migrants”. The Committee recommended “remote voting” as a solution in its 2016 report.
Migration and absentee voting:
Migrant workers in India frequently express reluctance to register as voters in states other than their home state. This is due to a number of reasons, including:
The place of residence frequently changes.
Fear of losing possessions in their home state.
They either couldn’t or didn’t want to invite their relatives.
Women were not safe in the area, as the travellers repeatedly mentioned.
Electronic remote for voting (RVM):
The Election Commission of India (ECI) has suggested the deployment of remote voting machines (RVMs) in order to provide voting facilities to migratory workers who find it difficult to travel back to their hometown to cast their ballots. By doing this, votes would be saved.
Special remote voting locations are set up in other states when elections are held in the home states of migratory workers.
The remote voter must pre-register for the service by delivering an application to the returning officer of their home constituency either in person or online.
The current homes of the remote voters would then become the special polling places.
The RVM is a standalone, disconnected system.
Instead of a paper ballot sheet that may change based on which constituencies were chosen, the RVM would have a dynamic ballot display.
An apparatus resembling the VVPAT was part of a system that allowed voters to verify their ballots.
The fundamental objective of the ECI must be to ensure that every Indian who is eligible to vote is able to do so.
Voting must be regarded as both a civic obligation and a civic privilege.
The ECI might launch major outreach initiatives to urge migrant workers to vote using the network of District Collectorates.
Immigrants should be allowed to vote in person in the city where they work based on the address on their existing voter IDs and the period of their temporary stay.
The same way the “One Nation One Ration Card” gave more power to the underrepresented migrant voters, a “One Nation One Voter ID” would guarantee the portability of native ballots.
The right of every Indian voter to vote in elections is a requirement for a democratically inclusive India.
Along with leaving their home countries, many migrants have forfeited crucial rights. People have the opportunity to exercise their right to vote during elections, however migrant voters’ votes have historically been absent. Millions of migrant workers now have some hope thanks to the ECI’s intervention, but there are still two critical tasks that need to be accomplished: increasing knowledge of the initiative and guaranteeing transparency.
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The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
Recently, the country celebrated the birthday of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. According to Prime Minister Modi, “He has left an indelible mark across several areas, from art to music, and from education to literature.”
Life of Rabindranath Tagore:
In addition to being the first non-European and Asian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature [for his collection of poems, “Gitanjali,”] in 1913, Tagore was also a playwright, composer, philosopher, painter, and reformer. His timeless writings provided the liberation struggle with the philosophical foundations it needed, and his views on justice and equality had an impact on India’s worldview. Still today, Tagore is revered as a prophetic poet and a beacon. He was a fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society. “The Bard of Bengal” is well-known.
Tagore, a Bengali Brahmin from Calcutta with gentry ancestry in Jessore and the Burdwan area, began writing poems when he was eight years old.
He advocated for independence from Britain as a humanist, universalist, internationalist, and internationalist. He also vehemently opposed nationalism.
In 1905, he promoted a comprehensive canon that encompassed artwork, doodles, hundreds of essays, and approximately 2,000 songs as a representative of the Bengal Renaissance;
Tagore renounced his knighthood and criticised British brutality following the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.
He founded Visva-Bharati University, which still upholds his legacy.
He has spoken in the World Parliament for Religions in 1929 and 1937.
His compositions “Amar Shonar Bangla” and “Jana Gana Mana” are the national anthems of Bangladesh and India, respectively. His work served as the basis for the national song of Sri Lanka.
His best-known works include Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced), Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World), and Nationalism. Lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural introspection were praised—or derided—in his verse, short stories, and novels.
Rabindranath Tagore’s main concepts are:
Recent developments in India’s limited nationalism make it necessary to review his principles:
True freedom requires the capacity to be true and honest with oneself; otherwise, autonomy loses all of its value. “Freedom” does not only refer to political freedom from the British.
In reality, anti-colonialism should entail fusing the best of Indian culture with all the best of western civilization, rather than opposing everything that is British.
Tagore supported the idea of a universal religion. A person needs to follow their dharma. Love, harmony, and simplicity define true religion. He also wrote against idolatry, superstition, and religious fanaticism: “While God waits for his temple to be built of love, men bring stones.” We must look beyond all limitations and towards the unification of Buddha, Christ, and Muhammad.
Internationalism: Tagore was a zealous advocate of international peace. He thought everyone should get along. The spiritual foundations served as the foundation for Tagore’s internationalism. Universalism was the result of Tagore’s humanism. He forewarned that nationalism, which is characterised by imperialistic want for wealth, lust for power, egotistical materialism, insane competition, and savage cruelty perpetrated on the world’s weak, exploited, and defeated nations, is the root cause of conflict.
Freedom of speech and conscience: He agreed to differ with Gandhiji on a number of subjects, yet he nevertheless referred to him as “Mahatma” despite following Voltaire.
Humanism: Tagore was a proponent of love, empathy, compassion, and communal understanding. His humanism was based on transcendental spiritual principles; he held that man is the image of God. He held that all members of human society should be treated equally, regardless of their race, colour, caste, nationality, or religion.
Communal Harmony: He asserted that Muslims and Muslims should be perfect equals in terms of position, dignity, and education. This will benefit Hindus.
Social philosophy: Tagore fought against social ills like untouchability, superstition, and poverty, but he did not believe that the West was the root of all evil. He embraced Western science and its commitment to democracy, freedom, and the value of the individual.
His educational beliefs encouraged the growth of the physical, intellectual, moral, spiritual, social, and global awareness in addition to adaptability. In Santiniketan, where he built Viswa Bharti University, he promoted a global culture of harmony in variety by fusing the east and the west.
Sustainable Development: He wholeheartedly supports lumenarchy and cosmocracy, a socio-cultural framework that emphasises the virtues of light and works to create a new, joyful, vibrant world in which all living things will coexist in perfect harmony, peace, and happiness.
Tagore’s Educational Principles:
The freedom a youngster has to choose their own experiences and activities.
The creative self-expression principle.
interaction between man and nature.
Enlightenment as education.
Education as a Process of Development.
According to Tagore, education is the holistic development of human capabilities for the pursuit of a full life.
Harmony in education.
Mother language is the teaching method.
The internationalism principle.
Tagore’s educational goals were as follows:
to foster a desire to help people.
to promote and advance the peaceful coexistence of people in our planet.
to uphold and abide by the universal principles that foster peace and a sense of brotherhood among all people.
To pursue excellence in all areas of one’s life so that the nation might reach new heights of ambition and success.
to improve language abilities while using 21st century talents like imagination, creativity, and critical thinking.
to elucidate the idea of world peace & understanding, global relations, and universal brotherhood.
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