Mains Q & A 15 May 2023
Q1. In light of Nehru's "temples of contemporary India," discuss the significance that these institutions have played in India's growth since attaining independence.(250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS I à National Movement
When construction on the Bhakra Nangal Dam first began, Jawahar Lal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, referred to the steel mills, power plants, dams, and research facilities that were being built in India after independence to support economic and scientific development as the “temples of modern India.” The All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institute of Design, the Life Insurance Corporation, the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, and the Indian Oil Corporation were all envisioned as temples that would rebuild India and put it back in its appropriate place in the world.
Contribution to the expansion and development of India:
In addition to the institutions that would provide the groundwork for India’s future development, Nehru’s vision for India was based on a number of ideas, including democracy, secularism, inclusive economic growth, press freedom, and non-alignment in international affairs.
These institutions had an effect on every part of the economy, including space travel, aviation, and agriculture.
These temples would, in Nehru’s view, represent the apex of a strong, independent economy that gave the demands of the common populace top priority.
These organisations were able to serve the full social spectrum as a result of Nehru’s inclusive vision. Nehru established the KendriyaVidyalaya network at the same time as the IITs.
In addition to his noteworthy achievements in the steel and oil industries, Nehru formed the Khadi and Village Industries Commission to promote small and cottage businesses.
The Prime Minister realised the necessity for a well-planned, modern metropolis as Bhilai, Durgapur, and Rourkela were growing into sizable townships. Chandigarh was consequently built. At a period when the term “smart city” was not yet well-known, Chandigarh was maybe the first smart city in India.
The Planning Commission and the Indian Election Commission are two of these organisations that require special attention. The triumph of democracy and development is one of Nehru’s central themes, and these topics are connected to it.
A group of intelligent individuals who shared Nehru’s principles and vision for a modern India effectively managed his institutions.
They were well-known individuals with academic backgrounds. They were technocrats, scientists, and experts with a successful track record.
Along with Vikram Sarabhai and VergheseKurien, they also included HomiBhabha, P.C. Mahalanobis, S.S. Bhatnagar, S. Bhagavantam, and C.D. Deshmukh.
They each upheld the greatest levels of professionalism for the project they were in charge of, setting goals for it to achieve and identifying future leadership tiers for the project’s growth.
Over time, several of these institutions have altered to conform to global standards. Indian Oil was the first firm from India to be included in the 2014 Fortune 100. Amul emerged as the most well-known consumer brand in India, which produced more milk than any other country.
During Prime Minister Nehru’s 17-year presidency, India’s economy grew quickly, and other future Prime Ministers looked to him for managerial guidance. The Indian economy expanded tremendously during this period. The telephone revolution changed the telephone from a symbol of an opulent lifestyle to one that was universally held, and the digital revolution turned India into a centre for global technology. India went from being a nation that exported agriculture to being in ruins after the Green Revolution.
The Nehruvian worldview was essential to the accomplishment of these tasks, as were countless scientists and technocrats. Together, these changes have helped about 300 million Indians escape poverty and signalled the start of a modern, diversified economy with a large digital component.
Q2. Our national song, "Jana Gana Mana," is a representation of the rich culture, heritage, and history of India. Since its adoption, it has been used as a means of expressing national identity. Discuss. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS I à National Movement
On January 24, 1950, the penultimate day of its final session, the Indian Constituent Assembly adopted “Jana Gana Mana” as the national anthem. The opening verse of the Bengali hymn “BharotoBhagyoBidhata,” composed in his Anand Math by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, is “Jana Gana Mana.” The National Anthem had its debut on December 27, 1911, at a Congress gathering in Calcutta.
How our country’s rich history, customs, and culture are reflected in our national anthem:
A nation’s independence is frequently one of the strongest assertions in the national song.
The song is a prayer for Mother India, also known as Goddess Bharatavarsha, and her offspring (the citizens of India).
A traditional Sanskrit shloka follows the first two lines of the Bengali text. The intention is to pay homage to Lady Justice, who personifies everything honourable in our nation.
The first statement talks about love and humility, and the second one makes a sincere appeal for aspiration.
The third stanza praises the nation’s victories while praying to God for more willpower to fight.
The final lyric expresses the resolve to live a life deserving of independence and freedom—not just for ourselves, but for all of humanity.
The National Anthem beautifully captures the spirit of pluralism and the theme of “Unity in Diversity,” which is at the heart of India’s cultural history.
There are many different languages and dialects spoken in India.
The popularity of Jana Gana Mana throughout India promotes a sense of cohesion among these various tongues.
The words of our national anthem are a beautiful illustration of the traditions and principles that continue to underpin our nation.
It supports the idea that Indian culture values and welcomes diversity.
Through solemnly reciting the hymn-like phrases, Jana Gana Mana unites the diverse races, castes, and religious groups by igniting nationalistic sentiments.
As a result, our national anthem has a whiff of universalism and openness; it is not constrained in its viewpoint. Everyone should strive for the objectives in this song.
Every Indian, when he hears the patriotic words of our National Anthem, stands up and leaves everything else. Even for a brief moment, the stirring music and motivational lyrics will take you back to the land of patriotism. The worth of India as a diverse nation is emphasised in the national anthem. Even if there are differences in culture, customs, religion, and languages, it represents India’s oneness under one flag. The song serves as a constant reminder of our shared Indian unity while also fostering community.
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