Mains Q & A 17 May 2023
Q1. Less reliance on imports for medical equipment will lead to lower health care costs and improved domestic quality. The planned 2022 National Policy for Medical Devices is discussed. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS II à Health related issues
· Model Answer:
· With the aid of the new DREAM medical device plan, the government intends to reduce India’s dependence on imports from 80% to roughly 30% in the next 10 years and rank among the top five global manufacturing centres for medical devices by 2047.
· The medical device market in India is currently governed by the 1940 Drugs and Cosmetics Act, but the sector has long campaigned for the development of a specific medical device policy.
· Indian medical device industry:
· Electronic devices, implants, consumables and disposables, IVD reagents, and surgical instruments are just a few of the many product categories that make up the medical device sector.
· Prior to 2017, when the CDSCO established the Medical Device Rules, 2017 to gradually regulate all medical devices under the 1940 Drugs and Cosmetic Act, with an emphasis on quality, safety, and efficacy issues, the medical device industry was mostly unregulated.
· Currently, the majority of medical devices—especially expensive ones—sold in the country are imported.
· The medical equipment market in India is about USD 5.2 billion, or roughly 4-5% of the nation’s USD 96.7 billion healthcare industry.
· Due to Indian companies’ historical focus on low-priced, low-tech products like consumables and disposables, foreign companies have historically captured a larger value share of the market.
· Features and objectives of the proposed national medical device policy:
· Regulatory streamlining to optimise regulatory processes and the multiplicity of agencies for greater convenience of doing business. Harmonisation with international standards to ensure uniformity (ensuring the safety of equipment).
· enhancing competitiveness by offering tax and financial incentives to promote private sector investment in the neighbourhood manufacturing sector.
· Infrastructure development is being done to provide best-in-class physical base, including medical device parks with shared amenities like testing centres, in order to boost cost competitiveness and increase the desirability of domestic manufacturers.
· promoting R&D and innovation with a focus on better international collaborations, joint ventures, and R&D and innovation projects among key stakeholders to reduce the knowledge gap between university curricula and market demands.
· Development of human resources is important to ensure that curriculum at the higher education level are relevant, that different stakeholders are skilled, and that future-ready HR are created with the appropriate skill sets throughout the creative value chain.
· The “Make in India, Make for the World” campaign uses brand positioning and awareness generation to promote India as a hub for the manufacturing of medical devices.
· Other benefits:
· Promote important technology ventures and exports by using tax incentives and refunds.
· Take advantage of public-private collaborations to increase productivity and reduce healthcare expenditures.
· A single-window licencing system for medical devices should be established.
· Encourage buying locally and identify key suppliers.
· Encourage cross-industry collaboration.
· Increase the number of medical technology companies doing research and development by 50%.
· a fund created expressly to encourage cooperation between renowned academic institutions, start-ups, and established industrial giants.
· Include a structure for a reasonable price strategy so that all residents can access high-quality, pocket-friendly medical equipment.
· This policy expects India by 2047.
· Similar to the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPERs), there won’t be many National Institutes of Medical Device Education and Research (NIMERs).
· will give rise to 25 cutting-edge, future medical discoveries and be their creator.
· having a 10-12% global market share and a $100–300 billion medical technology business.
Q2. Despite the advantages, scalability and profitability of organic farming can only be achieved if the difficulties it encounters are solved. Examine. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS III à Environmental Conservation
· Model Answer:
· The FSSAI defines “Organic farming” as a farm management and design method that forgoes the use of synthetic external inputs such chemical fertilisers, pesticides, synthetic hormones, and genetically modified organisms in order to develop an ecosystem for agricultural production. The health of agro-ecosystems, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity, is improved by organic farming, according to the FAO.
· Advantages of organic farming:
· In comparison to conventional agriculture, organic farming uses fewer pesticides, lowers soil erosion, lessens nitrate leaching into groundwater and surface water, and recycles animal waste back into the farm.
· Cons of organic farming:
· Due to their low volume, organic food products have comparatively high costs. According to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, productivity drops by 6.7% on average in the first year, thus the government needs to come up with a plan to assist farmers in adjusting to the shift.
· The cost of cultivation increases since it takes more time and energy to manufacture than its chemical-heavy predecessor.
· As a result of strong demand and constrained supply, organic food products are currently subject to increased inflationary pressure.
· The low yield of organic crops has also been attributed by farmers to pest attacks on those crops, and they have urged for education and training to deal with the problem.
· The price of finished goods is increased by costs associated with specialised farmer training, increased processing and inventory holding costs, and increased packaging, logistics, and distribution costs.
· It is alarming that there are no organic food products available in any market sector.
· Producers generally do not have a good understanding of the distinction between conventional and organic farming.
· There is a lack of public understanding of the health advantages of organic food products and confusion between natural and organic products.
· The choice between imported and domestic brands, the quality of the products, and the veracity of the claims and certifications must all be made by consumers.
· Farmers are having a difficult time finding a better market while still dealing with the current certification programmes for organic products. The certification procedures are costly as well as time- and labor-intensive.
· Moving forward:
· By promoting organic production and using location-specific hybrid production systems, supply-demand mismatch can be significantly reduced.
· Companies’ investments in establishing operations excellence will enable the price of organic food items to be reduced.
· retaining an accurate audit stream and avoiding cross-contamination with traditional goods would be essential to retaining consumer trust.
· Consumers should practise responsible consumption, and stakeholders should stop supply chain waste.
· To create organic herbicides, the government needs enlist the aid of agricultural specialists and foreign research organisations.
· It is crucial for businesses in the organic food industry to raise customer awareness in non-metropolitan areas.
· Access to organic food should be available to people of all income levels.
· establishing “grow your own food” projects or cooperative agricultural farms.
· India’s best insurance policy is organic agriculture, which performs better in terms of productivity, environmental effect, economic viability, and social well-being. The food production system India needs does not prioritise increased yields at the expense of other sustainability pillars (economics, environment, and society). India requires a comprehensive system that prioritises all sustainability factors equally along the entire value chain in order to build a society that is nourished and healthy.
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