Mains Q & A 23 May 2023
Q1. Though at a gradual rate, the presence of women in law enforcement has progressively grown. But in order to advance the cause of women's emancipation, it must go beyond token gestures. Examine. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS I à Women Empowerment related issues
Most Indians consider the police to be a man’s domain. Though at a gradual rate, the presence of women in law enforcement has progressively grown. In addition to carrying out their official duties, female police officers have been actively promoting women’s empowerment, progressively sowing the seeds of modernity and good change in society. According to the India Justice Report 2019, which was put together by a committee of sectoral specialists from human rights organisations to legal policy organisations, women make up 7% of India’s 2.4 million police officers.
Indian women police officers:
Only about 10% of police officers are women, according to the Bureau of Police Research and Development.
The biggest percentage of women among all states make up about 25% of the Bihar police force.
Himachal Pradesh, with about 19% of the total, and Tamil Nadu, with 18%, are the next two states. Delhi needs to increase the percentage of women, which is now 13%.
Chandigarh and Ladakh are performing well among the Union territories, with more than 18% female residents.
Jammu and Kashmir has one of the lowest percentages of female police officers at roughly 3%.
With many States and Union Territories guaranteeing a 30% (or higher) reservation for women in the police in particular ranks, the numbers are anticipated to climb.
According to recent research, the majority of women in law enforcement work in lower positions.
The following factors prevent the advancement of women in the police services:
In addition to ongoing and pervasive gender bias, the police department exhibits gender apathy as evidenced by the lack of separate restrooms, changing rooms, and accommodations for women as well as other amenities and child-care support.
Gender stereotypes that prevent women from holding operational leadership positions are present in decisions on the deployment of women. This bias does not only come from male coworkers; occasionally, female supervisors also view them as weak, unmotivated, and lacking in toughness.
Allotted lower priority tasks:
There seems to be a propensity to marginalise women, assign them less physically demanding policing duties, restrict them to desk jobs, or force them to investigate crimes against women on their own.
Dedicated only to instances involving women:
The idea works against the interests of women as it segregates them, relegating women police officers to dealing with crimes against women and accompanying women inmates.
Women hired at entry-level positions:
According to recent data, the majority of women in the police force are concentrated in lower ranks, which reflects the lack of women in important operational roles.
Steps required to overcome:
More women are needed in executive positions across the board, from constables to inspectors and higher grades.
To achieve regional diversity, departments should conduct targeted recruiting campaigns in every district.
In order to be on an equal footing with their male colleagues in every way, women in the constabulary must have the training, encouragement, and confidence they require.
It is crucial to have access to resource centres that offer mentoring, raise knowledge of opportunities and prospects, assist with career planning and training, and help people deal with issues at work.
A secure workspace:
To make policing an attractive career choice for women, police organisations must also provide secure workplaces and implement a zero-tolerance stance towards harassment and discrimination.
The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition, and Redress) Act of 2013 must be operationalized by departments.
Sensitivity to gender:
All ranks must share a common, gender-neutral cadre in order for there to be an equal distribution of promotion possibilities.
Women certainly have some unique requirements that must be met, such as those that arise during and after pregnancy. Not reassigning them to non-executive positions is appropriate. More women need to join the force and work in the fields, says the force.
The majority of State police departments have received funding through the Modernization of State Police Forces Scheme to build separate housing for women with linked toilets in all police stations and units as well as to provide separate restrooms and changing areas for women. The optimum use of this fund must be guaranteed by police units.
Increasing sensitivity and awareness:
To raise awareness of the opportunities for women in law enforcement, the police should get in touch with the media and educational institutions.
Women should not be pigeonholed into handling exclusively crimes against women, even though they have a role in making up for the force’s general lack of training and sensitization in dealing with such crimes.
In policy circles, there is a lack of discussion about integrating women into the police force by making Indian policing inclusive, non-discriminatory, and effective. resulting in the vicious cycle of inaction, which keeps the culture of silence alive. Men and women must share desk work equally as well. It would take a sustained growth in their strength, meaningful networking among themselves, and an institutionalised support structure in the current societal reality for women in police to operate to the best of their abilities. They will then act like the women and police officers they are. They will be free to act as change agents and to be themselves. to succeed. to take the lead. to benefit the public.
Q2. The National AYUSH Mission (NAM) plays a significant role in the production of medicinal species in addition to promoting AYUSH medical systems through affordable AYUSH services. Discuss. (250 words)
Paper & Topic: GS IIà Government Policies and Interventions
The abbreviation AYUSH stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy, among other Indian medical systems. All of these systems take a holistic approach to health, disease, and treatment. The National AYUSH Mission (NAM) was established during the 12th Plan with the primary goals of strengthening educational systems, promoting AYUSH medical systems, enforcing quality control of Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and Homoeopathic (ASU &H) drugs, and ensuring the long-term availability of ASU & H raw materials.
The National AYUSH Mission’s (NAM) features include:
co-location of AYUSH facilities at district hospitals (DHs), primary health centres (PHCs), and community health centres (CHCs).
provision of necessary medications to AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries.
Improvements to the exclusive AYUSH hospitals and clinics run by the state government.
establishing an integrated AYUSH hospital with up to 50 beds.
Improvements to State Government Educational Facilities.
Establishment of new AYUSH educational facilities by the state government, including yoga and naturopathy, in areas where none now exist.
Strengthening of ASU&H (Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Homoeopathy) Pharmacies and Drug Testing Laboratories (DTL) Public Sector Undertaking (PSU)/State Government.
Promotion of and Cultivation of Medical Plants.
Actions taken to mainstream AYUSH services and promote their use:
A total of 104 integrated AYUSH hospitals with up to 50 beds have received sponsorship from various States and UTs.
The upgrading of infrastructure and other facilities has received support for a total of 296 AYUSH hospitals and 4717 AYUSH dispensaries.
A total of 350 DHs, 840 CHCs, and 2878 PHCs have received support under co-location for recurrent medication and emergency assistance on average each year.
512 AYUSH Gramme units and 1965 Yoga Wellness Centres were sponsored.
The creation of 11 new AYUSH educational institutions has received grant funding.
A total of 33 post-graduate and 72 undergrad AYUSH educational institutions have received funding for infrastructure, library, and other improvements.
29 drug testing laboratories and 36 ASU & H pharmacies have received help for growth.
Ayush Health & Wellness Centres (HWCs) have received approval for 4448 units. The growing functionality of 1041 HWCs.
NAM’s function in encouraging the production of therapeutic species:
From 2015–16 to 2020–21, the Ministry of Ayush covered 56,305 hectares nationwide and provided support to 59,350 farmers for the cultivation of 84 medical plant species out of 140 prioritised medicinal plants.
In order to encourage farmers to cultivate medical plants across the nation from 2015–16 to 2020–21, the Ministry offered financial assistance in the form of subsidies under the NAM’s medicinal plants component.
According to the plan, farmers received subsidies at 30%, 50%, and 75% of the cost of cultivation.
How to move ahead:
It is crucial to acquire scientific proof of the effectiveness and safety of AYUSH treatments and medications.
Through high-quality education and training at the national and international levels, work towards increasing capacity and creating a critical mass of qualified professionals in the AYUSH sector.
It is imperative that traditional and new systems are truly integrated. This would necessitate the development of a deliberate approach to enable genuine cross-learning and collaboration between the conventional and new systems on an equal footing.
Regarding the requirements for a good integration, there needs to be a lot of groundwork done.
building a solid body of data in traditional medicine.
controlling and standardising AYUSH practises and credentials.
identifying the relative advantages, disadvantages, and function of each system within a comprehensive framework.
negotiating the differences between systems’ philosophies and concepts.
In light of the enormous effort for establishing universal health care that is already under way in the nation and taking into account the immense potential of AYUSH to contribute to this cause, a medium- and long-term plan for seamless integration should be devised promptly.
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