News & Editorial Analysis 31 May 2023
The Hindu News Analysis
1 – India’s New Parliament:
Parliament related issues
The new Indian Parliament building, which embodies the national pride, culture, and spirit in the country’s 75th year of independence, was just opened by the prime minister of India.
President Droupadi Murmu, the nation’s first tribal leader, was allegedly ignored by the central administration, prompting 19 opposition parties to skip the inauguration ceremony.
The declaration of the move of the GoI’s seat from Calcutta to the historic Capital of Delhi was made at the 1911 coronation of George V as Emperor of India.
The GoI Act of 1919 established India’s bicameral legislature because it was deemed necessary.
The Chausath Yogini temple at Mitawli village in MP’s Morena district is thought to have been the inspiration for the parliament building’s circular design. Construction of the parliament building took six years (and Rs 83 lakhs) from 1921 to 1927.
Why a new Parliament building was required:
Current Parliament is dated:
The current Parliament building is a nearly century-old Heritage Grade-I edifice that is overused and in need of repair (it will be transformed into a ‘Museum of Democracy’ once the new Parliament is operational).
MPs have little space to sit:
A bicameral legislature for a true democracy was never intended to fit in the current structure.
There are only 440 seats available in the Central Hall, and this issue is made worse when the Joint Sessions are convened.
After 2026, the present 545 Lok Sabha seats are anticipated to rise dramatically.
Infrastructure in distress:
The addition of services like water supply, sewer lines, etc. has caused water seepage at various locations and damaged the building’s beauty.
For instance, structural safety, fire safety, etc. (Delhi is currently in Seismic Zone-IV).
Outdated communication methods:
The current Parliament’s communication systems and electronics are out-of-date, and all of the halls’ acoustics might use some work.
Employee workspace is insufficient.
It is a component of the Central Vista Project, an ongoing effort to renovate the central administrative district of India, which was created by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker under British colonial authority and is situated close to Raisina Hill in New Delhi.
It was created by Tata Projects Ltd. and was designed by Ahmedabad-based HCP Design, Planning and Management, which is led by architect Bimal Patel.
Principal characteristics of the new Capitol building:
A “Platinum-rated Green Building” having a built-up size of around 65,000 sq m that is divyang friendly.
The best possible use of space is made possible by the triangle design.
a larger Rajya Sabha hall (384 seats) with a lotus motif and a larger Lok Sabha chamber (888 seats) with a peacock theme (the national bird of India).
Up to 1,272 seats in the Lok Sabha are available for combined sessions of Parliament.
Modern Constitutional Hall places Indian citizens at the centre of our democracy both symbolically and practically.
Members can socialise in the Central Lounge, which will go well with the outside space (which has a banyan, the country’s tree).
contemporary, cutting-edge technologies include an electronic voting system, expertly designed acoustics, and audio-visual systems in each chamber.
UNESCO and ASI-protected sites, murals showing maps of ancient India, etc.
Large brass statues of B.R. Ambedkar, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Chanakya, Gargi, and the Chariot Wheel from the Sun Temple at Konark are displayed in three ceremonial entrance halls.
The new Parliament was adorned with carpets from Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh, and Tripura’s epitome of bamboo flooring, reflecting the cultural diversity of India in accordance with the “Made in India” policy.
Source à The Hindu
2 – NavIC Satellite System:
Space and Technology
In order to address some of the past problems with NavIC, ISRO will launch a new NavIC satellite (NVS-01), which is a member of the second generation of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), also known as NavIC.
NavIC’s (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) problems include:
Atomic clock malfunction:
After their atomic clocks malfunctioned, several of the current satellites stopped delivering location information.
Replacement of a satellite:
The mission life of several of the NAVIC constellation’s satellites has ended or they are now only partially operational.
While NAVIC offers coverage over the whole Indian continent and a 1,500 km radius surrounding it, more expansion and ground stations outside of India are required to increase coverage and accuracy in difficult-to-reach places.
Development of user segments:
The NAVIC system’s user receivers have taken longer to create than expected, which has limited how much the navigation services are used.
The inability of mobile phones in India to process NAVIC signals now prevents the technology from being used widely.
Encryption and security:
A critical difficulty is ensuring the security of NAVIC communications and avoiding intrusions or spoofing.
To address some of the concerns, the Satellite now has the following new features:
In addition to the L5 and S frequencies, the L1 frequency is included to improve interoperability with wearable technology and personal trackers. Additionally improving interoperability with other satellite-based navigation systems is the incorporation of L1 frequency.
Increased mission life:
The mission life of the second-generation satellites will be greater than 12 years. The mission life of the current satellites is 10 years.
Atomic clock made of rubidium:
The atomic clock guarantees precise placement, resolving a problem that earlier satellites in the constellation encountered.
A Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket will launch the NAVIC satellite that weighs the most.
Prior satellites were launched on PSLV and were significantly lighter. More instruments and fuel can be loaded due to the increased weight allowance.
The benefits of NavIC over alternative systems:
There are four worldwide satellite-based navigation systems: the American GPS, the Russian GLONASS, the European Galileo, and the Chinese Beidou. The only nation with a regional satellite-based navigation system is India.
NavIC open signals are anticipated to offer precision up to 5 metres once fully operational, exceeding GPS accuracy (20 metres).
In contrast to GPS, NavIC uses satellites in high geostationary orbit to guarantee continuous coverage throughout the target area.
Enhancing Signal Reception
In contrast to GPS, NavIC signals are easier to receive even in crowded or blocked places because they come at a 90-degree angle in India.
ISRO created NavIC to demonstrate India’s technological prowess and lessen reliance on external systems.
Why India needs a regional navigation system
The NavIC system in India runs on its own and is not dependent on GPS or other worldwide systems.
For defence operations and military applications, NavIC enables precise tracking and navigation.
Natural disasters like cyclones and floods are easier to track and respond to with the aid of NavIC.
Navigation and Transportation:
NavIC makes it possible to track commercial vehicles precisely, improving efficiency and road safety.
Precision farming and agriculture:
NavIC supports farmers in maximising irrigation, soil nutrient delivery, and crop management.
Public and individual safety:
Real-time tracking of fisherman is made possible by NavIC, which also notifies users of potential maritime threats.
Technological and scientific developments:
Geological exploration, scientific research, and the creation of geodetic networks are all made easier by NavIC.
NavIC’s range currently only reaches 1,500 kilometres outside of Indian borders. However, satellites in medium earth orbit (MEO) would be needed for applications involving ships and aircraft flying beyond this range. Future MEO satellite additions will allow NavIC to expand its global coverage and pursue the provision of global navigation services comparable to those offered by the GPS system.
Source à The Hindu
3 – Giant Artificial Intelligence:
Space and Technology
The restrictions and potential drawbacks of employing “giant artificial intelligence” (gAIs) like ChatGPT, Bard, Chinchilla, PaLM, LaMDA, and others.
Insufficient democratic input:
gAIs are created from the top down, which limits the participation and input of the intended users.
Decrease in diversity:
Local expertise and different viewpoints are frequently abstracted away by gAIs in favour of a more uniform and globalised view of information.
Cultural and linguistic prejudices:
The majority of online data used to train models is in English, which can cause them to be biassed and ignore the nuances of other languages and cultures.
gAIs may offer understandable responses, but they may not fully comprehend the context and nuances of some questions, leaving them with partial or incorrect answers.
Uncertainty in behaviour:
gAIs have the capacity to respond randomly, which makes their behaviour unpredictable and potentially unreliable.
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) dangers that can arise include:
Advances in AGI, a subject of research connected to gAIs, raise serious concerns that they might have disastrous effects.
less human engagement:
The reliance on gAIs for knowledge work may result in a reduction in the importance of human judgement and expertise, thereby degrading crucial abilities and experiences.
The deployment and use of gAIs create ethical issues, such as privacy, accountability, and openness in decision-making.
Source à The Hindu
4 – Mohenjodaro’s Dancing Girl:
The Dancing Girl Sculpture served as the model for the International Museum Expo 2023 mascot.
About the Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-daro:
during excavations at Mohenjodaro, a significant Indus Civilization site, in 1926 (by British archaeologist Ernest McKay).
Approximately 4,500 years old, from the Harappan era (3300–1300 BC).
Made of bronze, an alloy of metal mostly composed of copper.
10.5 cm tall (based on original figurine).
depicts a naked woman wearing several bracelets and a necklace.
poses with her legs slightly in front of her, a hand on her hip, and a vivacious and enthusiastic stance.
Sophistication in the Arts:
represents the high degree of artistic skill and metallurgical expertise in the Harappan culture, exhibiting the use of lost-wax casting methods.
The meaning of the figurine has been interpreted differently by historians; some believe she is a dancer, while others think she might be a woman carrying an offering.
The figurine is a piece of art with aesthetic and symbolic importance that emphasises the existence of high art in Harappan civilisation.
A remarkable Indus Civilization artefact, The Dancing Girl sheds light on the aesthetic and cultural customs of the time.
Currently residing in the National Museum of India, where it has a prominent position in the section devoted to Indus Civilization.
Source à The Hindu
#India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS
The Hindu Editorial Analysis
HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING IN INDIA:
India will likely have the fastest “supercomputer” in the world later this year, or more accurately, an enhanced “high performance computing (HPC)” machine.
Regarding HPC System:
The French business Atos, which offers consulting and IT services, will construct and install this system. With France, the central government agreed to buy high-performance computers worth 4,500 crore by 2025.
The Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Pune and the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting in Noida, which now house two of India’s most potent such machines, Mihir and Pratyush, respectively, would host these HPC systems.
The Atos machines, like their forerunners, will be largely utilised to run complex weather models that have been used for some time to create a variety of forecasts, from long-term monsoon to fortnightly as well as daily weather fluctuations.
Because good projections depend on being able to mimic the state of the atmosphere and oceans, extremely powerful equipment are required for this task.
The possession of HPCs is also used as a medallion by countries wishing to signify their technological prowess, despite the fact that, aside from weather modelling, many difficult research questions — protein biology, aerospace-modeling applications, and now AI-linked applications — are highly dependent on computing.
The term “supercomputers” is a buzzword that is constantly changing. Supercomputers from twenty years ago are today’s gaming consoles and laptops for students. A supercomputer is a computer that operates at or close to the maximum operational rate currently available for computers.
The Top500 initiative:
A list of the top 500 most powerful HPC machines has been kept by this initiative for more than 20 years, and it is updated twice a year.
With a peak speed of 13 petaflops, a machine housed in Pune’s Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC) is currently the sole Indian computer in the top 100. (Floating point operations per second (FLOPS), which equal 1,000 trillion, are a measure of a computer’s processing power. )
The French machines that will soon be deployed are anticipated to be 18 petaflops, while India currently has a few machines in the petaflop level at numerous research facilities.
The availability of strong supercomputers gives Indian scientists confidence that they can always use these behemoths to solve difficult problems, but it is debatable whether their use has resulted in important advances in either engineering or fundamental science.
Similar to how India has improved its short-term weather forecasts and increased the accuracy of its cyclone forecasts thanks to such computers, there should be more consideration given to their use in other disciplines rather than only focusing on their speed and power.
#India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS
The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
Arson, violence, and killings have recently returned to the ethnic turmoil that has plagued Manipur for almost a month after a brief calm. At least two persons were killed in the hours before Union Home Minister Amit Shah arrived in Imphal, one of them a police officer.
The main causes of tension in Manipur are:
Law and order situation is poor:
Attacks on legislators’ homes, police stations, and armouries were carried out by unruly mobs while the administration was absent from the scene.
So far, the violence has claimed the lives of at least 75 civilians.
Failure of the Executive Branch:
Not being able to foresee how the Manipur High Court’s contentious March 27 judgement may lead to a religious clash and the ensuing concerns brought on by the Meiteis’ desire for the ST status, who are primarily Hindu.
The authorities forcibly removed Kuki Tribe members from the hillside woodlands on the pretext of encroaching on the “reserve forest.”
Apart from disagreement among Manipur’s drug warlords, the authorities destroyed poppy farming in the hills without offering any substitute jobs.
The administration’s recent “verification drive” to find “illegal immigrants” from Myanmar disregarded the long-standing connections between Kukis in Manipur and Kukis of the “Zo” ethnic group in Myanmar, as well as Nagas on both sides.
It also disregarded the fact that many of the refugees in Manipur are fleeing persecution in Myanmar.
Abruptly terminating the SoO agreement with two tribal insurgency groups in March for the following reasons:
Its headquarters were in Myanmar.
They were supporting the in-hill demonstrations.
Crisis of governance, which is connected to more general issues of development, access to jobs and education, and property ownership and use.
taking over the ancestral lands of the hill people without first consulting them or respecting their customary systems.
Manipur’s Hill Area Autonomous District Councils, which are not subject to the constitution’s sixth schedule, have a problem with having insufficient autonomy.
Lack of social and intercommunal trust:
There has been no attempt to facilitate a reconciliation between the Meiteis and Kukis, and the gap between them only seems to have gotten wider over time.
Despite the Supreme Court’s criticism of the directive, the legal dispute regarding the Meiteis’ granting of tribe status has not yet been resolved.
Domestic political posturing that is poor:
The hill communities, who believe his administration to be pro-Meitei, view the Chief Minister as a more political character.
Even legislative bodies appear to be divided along communal lines, with tribal or community memberships taking precedence over party allegiances.
Effects of International Cross-Border Spillover:
Rumours of a demographic shift have been fueled by the post-coup unrest in Myanmar, which has resulted in an influx of refugees, including some with purported ties to anti-junta opposition groups.
Actions taken so far:
When the Manipur government failed to stop the violence recently, the Union government invoked Article 355 of the Constitution.
In order to bring about enduring peace in the area, the Central Government has declared that it is prepared to engage in conversation with insurgency groups in Manipur.
Compensation packages offered in the event of injury or death.
In the state, relief efforts including stranded passenger transportation are being made.
To prevent any undesirable circumstance, law is following its own course through the filing of FIRs and the seizure of weapons.
Over 47,914 people have received assistance through the opening of 318 relief camps.
The district magistrates are in charge of arranging for the provision of food, water, rations, medical attention, and medications.
Additionally, the state has approved a contingency fund of Rs 3 crore to cover any last-minute needs for relief efforts.
In addition, the state has chosen to set aside 25% of the MLA Local Area Development Fund for assistance programmes in the corresponding assembly districts.
Additionally, security is offered to places of worship, and specific security measures are implemented according to the requirements of each district and locality.
More Steps to Take:
At the administrative, judicial, political, and societal levels, the response must also be multi-layered.
Law and order must be reestablished as a priority.
To maintain order and control the situation, centralised forces must be mobilised.
This is crucial since the police force had also been affected by the erosion of community trust.
Political discussion among communities:
To overcome concerns of difference and create workable solutions, communication between the two communities must be encouraged with strong political will.
Evidence-based Equal Opportunity Policy:
To defuse the situation, it is necessary to maintain objectivity in the reserve policy by field research and swifter policy decisions.
To replace the growing of poppies in the Hills, there is a need to provide alternate employment opportunities and markets for agricultural products, including growing aloe vera.
To combat the threat of illegal migration and drug smuggling across the open India-Myanmar border from the Golden Triangle (Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos), technological infrastructure must be developed.
To wean the kids away from this lethal drug problem, drug de-addiction campaigns and de-addiction facilities must be established.
According to the 2007 rehabilitation policy, the purchase and eviction of forest areas must be done in accordance with the law, only after consultation, previous rehabilitation, and resettlement.
Fighting illegal immigration requires a humane strategy that takes into account pre-independence cross-border tribal family ties and permits citizenship to be granted on a compassionate basis in circumstances of persecution.
To resolve anxieties among the Hill tribes, think about giving the Hill District Councils more autonomy and maybe bringing the region under the Sixth Schedule.
To preserve peace in not just a city or a state but in the entire area, the Centre must intervene to win over the public’s trust. This vital border state is the entrance to India’s Act East dreams. In the spirit of cooperative federalism, there is a need for cooperation between the Union and State governments, and the Act East strategy of the Centre offers diplomatic, economic, and cross-border solutions to the problems of employment, market, and drug smuggling. Furthermore, power must be devolved in order to give tribe members the ability to address their ethnic and cultural issues. To maintain peace in the area, compassionate development and citizenship policies are urgently needed.
#India #World #Daily #The_Indian_Express_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIA
WEBSITE : https://geoias.com/
ONLINE TEST PORTAL : https://testportal.geoias.com/
ONLINE TEST PORTAL APP : http://surl.li/ewbua NOTE :UPDATE THE APP
CLASS ANDROID APP : http://surl.li/ewbth ORG CODE : BWJHQ
CLASS iOS APP : http://surl.li/bajol ORG CODE : BWJHQ
FACEBOOK : https://www.facebook.com/geoiaskolkata
INSTAGRAM : https://www.instagram.com/geoias
TWITTER : https://twitter.com/geo_ias
EMAIL ID : firstname.lastname@example.org
TELEGRAM : https://t.me/Geo_Ias
YOUTUBE : https://www.youtube.com/@geoiasupsc
FOR ONLINE/OFFLINE CLASSES : +91 9477560001, 9477560002