News & Editorial Analysis 12 OCTOBER 2023
The Hindu News Analysis
1 – About Samudra Prahari:
GS III – Internal Security
Tanjung Priok Port, Indonesia welcomes the Indian Coast Guard Pollution-Control Vessel Samudra Prahari.
Regarding the ship:
Created and layout:
Three vessels in the Samudra-class Pollution Control Vessel class were constructed for the Indian Coast Guard by the ABG Shipyard in Gujarat.
The Rolls-Royce Holdings is the company that designed the ships.
The Coast Guard ship constructed in India is the first to have its anti roll stabilisation equipment installed.
Other notable characteristics of warships are their Dynamic Positioning System (DPS), which allows for precise vessel manoeuvring in confined regions, and their Integrated Platform Management System (IPMS).
Pollutants are contained, recovered, separated, and dispersed using the technology on board.
Sophisticated control systems allow one operator to do many jobs at once.
The ship is outfitted with the newest technology for reducing pollution, including two stiff sweeping arms that allow it to collect oil spills while in motion.
The spread of the intricate oil leak pattern might be predicted with the use of sophisticated technologies.
The ship is built to retrieve 300 tonnes of oil per hour, ranging from the lightest to the thickest.
It is possible to pump the tainted water aboard and have it examined in a lab.
Additionally, the ship has systems for salvaging and battling fires.
The supporting role consists of:
battling fires and salvaging
enforcement of maritime law
High-speed interdiction and search and rescue.
In 2007, the first ship (CG 201) bearing the name Samudra Prahari (Ocean Striker) was launched.
Launched in 2009, the second ship (CG 202) was named Samudra Paheredar (Ocean Guardian).
Source – The Hindu
2 – Sampriti Exercise:
GS III – Internal Security
In Umroi, Meghalaya, India and Bangladesh began their eleventh annual combined military exercise, known as SAMPRITI.
Strong bilateral defence cooperation activities are shown by this exercise, which is alternately organised by the two nations.
2009 saw its inception in Jorhat, Assam.
Up till 2022, there have been ten successful iterations of the exercise.
Source – The Hindu
3 – Shreyas Scheme:
GS II – Government Policies and Interventions
The Parliament was briefed on the SHREYAS sub-schemes, the allotted budget, the specifics of expenditures, and the number of beneficiaries for the previous nine years.
The four central sector sub-schemes that make up the “SHREYAS” umbrella scheme are as follows:
First-rate instruction for SCs
Free Mentoring Programme for OBCs and SCs
SCs’ National Overseas Scheme and
The SC National Fellowship.
These sub-schemes are all part of the central government.
Central Sector Schemes are those that fall under the union list and are run by a central agency with full centre funding.
Free Mentoring Programme for OBCs and SCs:
The scheme’s goal is to give candidates from economically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) high-quality coaching.
Its goal is to prepare them to take competitive and entrance exams in order to get admission to reputable technical and professional higher education institutions as well as suitable jobs in the public and private sectors.
Under the scheme, a family’s annual total income cannot exceed 8 lakhs.
Elite Schooling for Social Classes:
By offering full financial assistance, the Scheme seeks to acknowledge and encourage high-quality education among students who are members of the SC community.
The Scheme will pay for SC students to continue their education after the twelfth grade.
Once granted, the scholarship will last till the student completes the course, provided they perform well enough.
Under the scheme, a family’s annual total income cannot exceed 8 lakhs.
SCs’ National Overseas Scheme:
Under this programme, chosen students from: receive financial aid to pursue master’s and doctoral-level coursework elsewhere.
The following pupils may profit from the programme:
whose annual household income, including that of the candidate, is less than Rs. 8 lakhs,
obtaining a grade of greater than 60% on the qualifying test,
less than 35 years old and
Obtained admission to international institutes and universities ranked among the top 500 by QS.
Source – The Hindu
4 – UAPA:
GS II – Government Policies and Interventions
The Delhi Police allegedly got funding for pro-China propaganda, which is why they closed the NewsClick news portal’s office. The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), a strict anti-terror law, is invoked in the FIR against the portal.
The primary accusation levelled about NewsClick is that it obtained illicit funds from China via the United States.
One of the main clauses that is cited is Section 16, which lays out the penalties for terrorist acts.
A “terrorist act” is defined in Section 15 of the UAPA and is punishable by life in prison or a minimum of five years in jail.
If the terrorist act causes death, the penalty is either death or life in prison.
This offence refers to violent crimes that are considered serious.
The following other clauses are used against NewsClick:
In Section 13 (illegal activity),
16 (act of terrorism),
17 (getting money to commit acts of terrorism),
18 (corruption), and
UAPA Section 22(C) (offences by companies, trusts).
Concerning UAPA framework:
The UAPA provides an alternative paradigm for criminal law that reverss the fundamental tenets of criminal law.
In comparison to the Indian Penal Code (IPC), the UAPA grants the state additional authority by easing the deadlines for filing chargesheets and easing the strict bail requirements.
The definitions and guidelines for classifying an organisation as a “unlawful association” if it participates in specific actions are outlined in the Unlawful actions Prevention Act (UAPA).
The government may then decide to declare such an entity a terrorist organisation if it feels that the organisation is involved in “terrorist activities.”
Regarding a person or organisation, an illegal activity entails:
Any activity performed by such a person or organisation (whether through physical acts, verbal or written statements, signs, visual representations, or other means),
which encourages an individual or group of individuals to bring about the cession or secession of a portion of India’s territory from the Union, or which is meant to promote any claim to that effect; or
which contests, calls into question, tampers with, or seeks to tamper with India’s sovereignty and territorial integrity; or
which incites animosity towards India or is meant to do so;
Additionally, any association is defined as a “Unlawful Association” by the UAPA.
which promotes or assists people in engaging in any illicit behaviour, or which has any unlawful activity as its goal,
It has as its goal any behaviour that is illegal under the Indian Penal Code’s section 153A (45 of 1860) or section 153B.
Consequently, “unlawful activity” as defined by the Act encompasses not just terror-related actions involving the commission of direct violence or attacks, but also any actions that:
compromise the nation’s territorial integrity and sovereignty,
compromises the nation’s economic stability or
creates discord or animosity, hostility, or malice among various ethnic, linguistic, religious, or regional groupings, castes, or communities across the nation.
What Steps Are Involved In Prohibiting An Organisation?
Notifying the recipient:
Prior to releasing a notification under the UAPA, the government evaluates potential threats to national security, including terrorism, secessionist movements, and territorial safety.
Based on FIRs filed or incidences in the state, a state government’s recommendations and complaints may also be taken into consideration.
According to UAPA, the central government may also impose a “immediate ban” on a group if it determines that certain conditions must be met.
Establishing a tribunal:
The government is required to convene a tribunal, presided over by a sitting High Court judge, to review the claims and supporting documentation within thirty days after the notification.
The tribunal can decide whether to uphold or reject the ban after reviewing the facts and hearing the organization’s or its members’ and supporters’ objections.
The tribunal publishes a notice in the public domain inviting answers to the notices.
The statute gives the Tribunal six months to hold hearings and decide whether to approve or disapprove the suggested prohibition.
An appeal may also be filed by the organisation with the relevant High Court if the tribunal maintains the ban.
History of the UAPA:
To enable more effective prevention of individuals’ and organisations’ illicit acts, the President enacted the illicit acts (Prevention) Ordinance in 1966.
The government quickly abandoned it in favour of the 1967 Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, which differed from the ordinance.
The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1952 was being used to declare associations illegal prior to the adoption of the UAPA.
Nonetheless, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban provision was unconstitutional due to the absence of a legal system to evaluate the legality of any prohibition.
As a result, the UAPA contained clauses requiring a Tribunal to validate the notification declaring an outfit illegal within six months.
Disagreement over its bail requirements:
If the court determines that there are reasonable grounds to think the charges are accurate at face value, it is prohibited under the Act from granting bail to a suspect.
A ruling by the Supreme Court on this matter made it clear that the prosecution’s version of events must be accepted by the court for determining bail, rather than requiring a thorough review of the facts.
This implies that the burden of proof is with the accused, but they do not need to ask the judge to consider the evidence that is at their disposal.
Because of this, human rights advocates believe the clause is too restrictive, making it nearly hard for anyone to get bail before the trial is over.
Source – The Hindu
5 – Southeast Asian Freedom of Speech:
GS II – International Issues
When it comes to press freedom and media rights, Southeast Asian nations are among the worst in the world.
Freedom of politics:
The “Buddhism, Islam and Religious Pluralism in South and Southeast Asia” report from the Pew Research Centre examined the place of religion in various South and Southeast Asian societies.
The study discovered that the region does not always embrace democracy and free expression.
Vietnam was placed third worst in the world, behind North Korea and China, in the most recent edition of the World Press Freedom Index.
Myanmar was among the worst ten nations as well.
With the exception of Malaysia, which came in at number 73, the rest of the area was ranked in the lower half.
Recently, Myanmar and China were tied for the bottom spot on Freedom House’s Freedom On The Net index, which tracks online free expression conditions.
Vietnam and Thailand, two more Southeast Asian nations, were listed among the 20 worst-performing nations.
While only 38% of Thai Buddhists agreed, over half of Thai Muslims (52%) felt that peace with others is more essential than free expression.
After a three-decade civil war that ended in the late 1990s, the Cambodian government has defended its stringent limitations on free expression by claiming that independent newspapers and opposition politicians pose a threat to the nation’s hard-won peace.
Laos and Vietnam’s communist administrations maintain that the rights of an individual to express oneself must yield to the interests of the national community.
In recent years, the Singaporean government has strengthened its rules against hate speech.
It forbids the insulting or attacking of any race or religion by another person.
Source – The Hindu
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The Hindu Editorial Analysis
EDITORIAL ANALYSIS – 12 OCTOBER 2023 – THE HINDU:
When people migrate repeatedly, they relocate from their country of origin to their destination country based on the availability of job. This pattern of migration is known as circular migration.
This essentially indicates that people relocate to different locations for a limited length of time when work is available, rather than moving permanently or temporarily (moving for a period of time to fulfil any contract based job) to another location. This problem usually affects low-income groups who relocate to another nation, city, location, etc. in order to take advantage of jobs that are accessible seasonally.
With the onset of globalisation and development in the 1960s and 1970s, circular migration gained significant popularity. Circular migration has been facilitated by the expansion of multinational enterprises, social networks, and increased accessibility to contemporary modes of transportation and communication.
If migration satisfies the following requirements, it can be classified as circular:
a brief residence at the intended place
potential for several entrances into the country of destination
freedom of travel throughout the residency period between the country of origin and the country of destination
a legitimate right to remain in the country of destination
defence of the rights of migrants
a strong need for temporary workers in the nation of destination.
If a person has completed at least “two loops” between two countries, they are considered circular migrants.
As a public directive:
One of the main global policy discussions these days is immigration policy in light of the growing ease with which individuals are migrating. Brain drain for the nations of origin and competition for the residents of the destination countries result from people from the Global South moving to the West in quest of better job opportunities or a higher standard of living.
In a similar vein, the migration of people within a country from rural to more urban locations causes infrastructural failure and agrarian stagnation. As a result, migration in general has turned into a risk to policy.
Circular migration, on the other hand, is currently thought to be the optimum course of action because it allows for the balance of individual economic success with development demands. It is seen as a balanced migration approach that considers migration from both the sending and the receiving countries’ points of view.
Migration, particularly international migration, benefits the country of origin since it generates remittances that support and strengthen the native economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) will boost the economy and lead to increased infrastructure, employment, and living standards.
Large-scale international migration will, however, also cause a phenomenon known as “brain drain,” in which your nation’s most gifted citizens leave to advance the interests of another nation.
From the standpoint of the host countries—particularly the Western ones—fewer people and greater educational opportunities have led to a significant shortage of low-skill, low-paying positions that migrants can fill.
The majority of the host populations, however, now demand limits or an outright ban on migration as a result of the inflow of migrants, which have led to a variety of fears and cultural tensions. The goal of circular migration is to allay these worries.
The detrimental consequences of brain drain will lessen, and a kind of cerebral circulation will be promoted, allowing the person to utilise his skills in both nations while continuing to make remittance contributions.
Movement in circles within India:
Internal migration, or mobility within a nation or state, has nearly always been circular in India. The emergence of employment opportunities in the manufacturing, construction, and services sectors has resulted in a significant migration wave from rural to urban areas.
The construction industry saw one of the biggest net increases in employment for all workers between 2004–2005 and 2011–2012, especially for males living in rural areas. Because they can no longer accommodate the influx of people, urban areas are experiencing a structural collapse while rural populations are declining and their economies are collapsing.
India has experienced significant inter-state mobility as a result of the uneven growth that followed liberalisation, with West Bengal, Odisha, and Bihar having some of the highest rates of outmigration. The majority of the movement used to be to Delhi, however now days it has also expanded to the southern States.
According to several reports, the absence of men who migrate gives women in the household greater autonomy and decision-making ability.
Problems pertaining to circular migration in India:
However, rural cyclical migrants are frequently at the mercy of intermediaries or brokers in such travel, particularly to southern States where the language barrier is a major hurdle. They are designed to operate in hazardous and unclean environments with little to no protective gear.
Furthermore, these migrants are disliked by native wage groups and unions since they perceive them as stealing their jobs by accepting lower pay.
According to the study, this type of movement is the very minimum required for subsistence. With no room for additional asset creation or savings, the migrants can hardly support themselves and their families.
These professions also carry a certain amount of precarity because they are seasonal and frequently irregular. They will have to return home or hunt for work in other large cities because there aren’t enough jobs in the host country.
When a lockdown was declared during the pandemic in 2020, a large number of migrants began to walk back to their hometowns, putting this precarity on full display.
States need to take the initiative to actively formulate policies in order to comprehend the scope of circular migration. More work has to be done to protect the rights of migrants, even though certain States, like Kerala, have launched health insurance plans for migrant workers (Awaz Health Plan). Workers’ precarity must be addressed, and greater attempts must be made to integrate them into the destination states.
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The Indian Express Editorial Analysis
EDITORIAL ANALYSIS – 12 OCTOBER 2023 – THE INDIAN EXPRESS:
Cauvery River Water Dispute:
The Cauvery dispute has just erupted once more; this is the first time it has done so since 2018, when the Supreme Court (SC) reopened the case following a tribunal’s ruling.
In order to carry out the ruling, the Court also ordered the establishment of the Cauvery Water Management Authority (CWMA).
Regarding the current problem and its effects:
Tamil Nadu initiated the latest round of contestation in August when it petitioned the Supreme Court, requesting that Karnataka provide Cauvery waters to its rightful share at a rate of 24,000 cusecs per day.
Karnataka disagreed, citing unfavourable precipitation. The instructions sent to Karnataka last week, requesting that it start releasing at a pace of 3,000 cusecs, ultimately caused the state to witness large-scale demonstrations.
Numerous arrests, cancelled flights, and a stalled economy resulted from the September 26 bandh in Bengaluru and the September 29 statewide bandh.
Causes of the interstate river conflict:
States lost as a result of the river water dispute:
Despite the fact that the conflict dates back several centuries, it has frequently erupted since the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) started making decisions in 1990. Numerous escalation episodes have occurred, always during difficult times.
It not only causes large economic losses but also frequently results in civil turmoil and violent crimes.
The latest flare-up in 2016 cost Karnataka alone Rs 25,000 crore in losses, according to the ASSOCHAM. In addition, the 2016 dispute had become an unsightly national show, with the two states arguing nearly daily over the release of Cauvery waters.
Procedure for settling conflicts over water between states:
Article 262 gives Parliament the authority to establish procedures for resolving disputes pertaining to the use, allocation, or management of interstate rivers’ or river valleys’ waters.
The Inter-State River Water Disputes Act (ISWD) of 1956 allows tribunals to be established in order to settle interstate river disputes.
To amend the ISWD Act, the Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was introduced.
CWDT’s function in the water sharing of the Cauvery River:
The Cauvery Water Regulatory Committee (CWRC), the CWMA’s technical arm, has been helping to coordinate the Cauvery decision’s implementation. This process is being tested by the distress conditions of this year.
Considering the current series of events, observers concur that the CWMA had a noticeable impact. The degree and scope of escalation were lessened by the existence of an official interstate coordinating system.
Political configurations and equations are important, but the CWMA, as a specific institutional channel for unbiased discussion and exchange of ideas, seems to have had some influence.
It’s a chance to consider solutions and acknowledge the crucial role interstate institutional processes play in resolving disputes over rivers and water. This is due to at least two factors.
First, escalation incidents debunk the notion that interstate river water disputes can ever be permanently resolved.
There is a growing realisation that conflict and cooperation are no longer mutually exclusive.
Conflict and collaboration coexist in the framework of transboundary water sharing. In order to maintain collaboration and reduce conflict, institutional responses must be added to legal adjudication.
Two, depending on how this episode plays out, we need to consider how organisations like the CWMA can be improved.
We have models such as the CWMA, which was developed in response to Supreme Court orders, and the NCA, which developed from consensus. Perhaps reaching a consensus has to be prioritised more.
The contrary is demonstrated by this escalation scenario, which could potentially result in the humiliating discrediting of the entire argument. This is a pivotal moment for the Court as well as the Interstates River Water Disputes Act revision that Parliament is now debating.
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