GEO IAS NCERT Foundation Course

  • Mode: Offline/Live-Online

  • Duration: 8 months, with 150+ classes Course

  • Features: Unlimited access for 2 years, academic support team, mock tests, doubt clearing sessions, and study materials, Covers NCERT textbooks from Class 6-12, current affairs classes, orientation classes, expert skill development sessions, study materials, mock exams, and personal mentorship.


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GEO IAS NCERT Foundation Course

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Key Points of the Course

    • An UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) optional course is designed to help candidates prepare for the optional subject portion of the Civil Services Examination (CSE). Here are some key features of a comprehensive UPSC optional course:

      1. Expert Faculty: The course should have experienced and knowledgeable instructors who are experts in their respective fields. Faculty with a proven track record of guiding successful candidates can provide valuable insights and strategies.

      2. Comprehensive Coverage: The syllabus for the chosen optional subject should be thoroughly covered, including all relevant topics, sub-topics, and any recent developments in the field. This ensures that candidates are well-prepared for any question that may appear in the exam.

      3. Structured Curriculum: A well-organized curriculum that follows a logical progression from basic to advanced topics is crucial. This helps in building a strong foundation before moving on to more complex areas.

      4. Updated Study Material: Access to high-quality, updated study materials, including notes, reference books, and supplementary reading, is essential. Materials should reflect the latest trends and changes in the exam pattern.

      5. Regular Tests and Assessments: Periodic tests, quizzes, and mock exams help students gauge their understanding and readiness. These should mimic the actual exam pattern and timing to provide a realistic practice environment.

      6. Answer Writing Practice: The course should emphasize answer writing skills, which are crucial for scoring well in the mains examination. This includes guidance on structuring answers, writing concisely, and adhering to the word limit.

      7. Personalized Feedback: Individualized feedback on assignments and test answers is important for improvement. Constructive criticism helps candidates identify their strengths and weaknesses.

      8. Doubt Clearing Sessions: Regular doubt clearing sessions, where students can interact with faculty to resolve their queries, are important. These sessions ensure that no student lags behind due to unresolved doubts.

      9. Flexible Learning Options: Both online and offline learning options should be available to cater to the needs of different students. Online courses should offer live classes, recorded lectures, and downloadable resources.

      10. Peer Interaction: Opportunities for interaction with fellow aspirants through discussion forums, study groups, and peer review sessions can enhance the learning experience and provide additional perspectives.

      11. Mentorship and Guidance: Access to mentors who can provide guidance on study strategies, time management, and exam temperament can be extremely beneficial. Personalized mentorship can significantly boost a candidate’s confidence and performance.

      12. Current Affairs Integration: The course should integrate current affairs relevant to the optional subject, as questions often relate to recent developments and their implications.

      13. Revision Modules: Effective revision strategies, including summary notes, revision tests, and quick revision sessions, help in retaining the vast syllabus.

      14. Performance Tracking: Tools for tracking progress and performance over time can help students stay motivated and focused on their preparation.

      15. Resource Accessibility: Easy access to all course materials and resources through a well-organized online portal or physical library is essential for efficient preparation.

      A well-designed UPSC optional course incorporating these features can significantly enhance a candidate’s chances of success in the Civil Services Examination.

  • Popular Optional Courses offered by  GEO IAS: Public Administration, Geography, Sociology, Political Science & International Relations, Maths, History, Anthropology


Geography is a popular optional subject for the UPSC Civil Services Examination due to its scientific nature and scoring potential. Here are some essential books and resources for preparing the Geography optional subject:

Books required for Geography Optional

Physical Geography

  1. “Certificate Physical and Human Geography” by G.C. Leong

    • A foundational book for understanding the basics of physical geography, including climate, landforms, and oceanography.
  2. “Geomorphology” by Savindra Singh

    • Covers detailed concepts of geomorphology, including the formation and evolution of various landforms.
  3. “Climatology” by D.S. Lal

    • Comprehensive coverage of climatology topics such as atmospheric circulation, weather systems, and climate classification.
  4. “Oceanography” by D.S. Lal

    • In-depth exploration of oceanographic phenomena, including ocean currents, marine resources, and the physical properties of oceans.

Human Geography

  1. “Human Geography” by Majid Husain

    • Explores human geography themes, including population, migration, settlements, and economic activities.
  2. “Models in Geography” by Majid Husain

    • Provides insights into various models and theories in geography, such as central place theory and demographic transition model.

Indian Geography

  1. “Geography of India” by Majid Husain

    • Detailed coverage of Indian geography, including physical features, climate, vegetation, and regional development.
  2. “Oxford School Atlas” by Oxford University Press

    • A must-have for understanding the spatial distribution of various physical and human geographical features in India.
  3. “Physical Geography of India” by D.R. Khullar

    • Comprehensive coverage of the physical geography of India, including geological structure, drainage systems, and climate.

Geographical Thought and Theories

  1. “Evolution of Geographical Thought” by Majid Husain
    • Covers the history and evolution of geographical thought, including contributions from various geographers and schools of thought.

Geography Optional Paper I & II

  1. “Fundamentals of Geographical Thought” by Sudeepta Adhikari

    • In-depth analysis of geographical concepts, theories, and methodologies.
  2. “Contemporary Issues in Geography” by various authors (relevant articles and journals)

    • Keeping updated with contemporary issues and case studies related to geography for Paper II.

Cartography and Map Work

  1. “Practical Geography” by Majid Husain
    • Practical aspects of geography, including map work, statistical diagrams, and interpretation.

Additional Resources

  1. “NCERT Books (Class XI and XII)

    • Physical Geography, Human Geography, India: Physical Environment, and Fundamentals of Human Geography provide a solid base for understanding core concepts.
  2. “Atlas” (any good quality atlas)

    • For map-based questions and understanding spatial relationships.

Journals and Magazines

  1. “EPW (Economic and Political Weekly)”

    • Useful for contemporary geographical issues and case studies.
  2. “Yojana and Kurukshetra”

    • Government publications that provide insights into developmental issues, rural and urban planning, and environmental management in India.

Online Resources

  1. NCERT Website

    • Access to textbooks and supplementary materials.
  2. Geography Websites and Blogs

    • Government Websites

Using a combination of these books and resources will help in comprehensive preparation for the Geography optional subject in the UPSC Civil Services Examination.


Preparing for the Sociology optional in the UPSC Civil Services Examination requires a strategic selection of books that cover the entire syllabus comprehensively. Here are some essential books and resources for Sociology optional:

Foundational Texts

  1. “Sociology: Themes and Perspectives” by Haralambos and Holborn

    • A foundational book that provides an in-depth understanding of various sociological perspectives and theories.
  2. “Sociology” by Anthony Giddens

    • Comprehensive coverage of key sociological concepts and contemporary issues.

Paper I: Fundamentals of Sociology

  1. “Sociological Theory” by George Ritzer

    • Detailed analysis of classical and contemporary sociological theories.
  2. “An Introduction to Sociology” by Vidya Bhushan and D.R. Sachdeva

    • Basic concepts and principles of sociology, ideal for beginners.
  3. “Sociology: Principles of Sociology with an Introduction to Social Thoughts” by C.N. Shankar Rao

    • A well-structured book covering both theoretical and practical aspects of sociology.
  4. “Modernization of Indian Tradition” by Yogendra Singh

    • Insight into the process of modernization and its impact on Indian society.

Paper II: Indian Society

  1. “Social Change in Modern India” by M.N. Srinivas

    • Detailed discussion on social changes in India, including caste dynamics and social movements.
  2. “Caste in Modern India and Other Essays” by M.N. Srinivas

    • Essays that explore the dynamics of caste in contemporary Indian society.
  3. “Indian Sociological Thought” by B.K. Nagla

    • Examination of the contributions of prominent Indian sociologists.
  4. “Social Background of Indian Nationalism” by A.R. Desai

    • An analysis of the social roots of Indian nationalism.
  5. “Rural Sociology in India” by A.R. Desai

    • Comprehensive coverage of rural sociology, including agrarian structure and peasant movements.

Contemporary Issues and Case Studies

  1. “Handbook of Indian Sociology” by Veena Das

    • A collection of essays on various aspects of Indian society.
  2. “Indian Society and Culture: Continuity and Change” by Nadeem Hasnain

    • Coverage of both traditional and modern aspects of Indian society.
  3. “Social Problems in India” by Ram Ahuja

    • Discussion on various social issues like poverty, crime, and violence.

Sociological Thinkers

  1. “Sociological Thought” by Francis Abraham and John Henry Morgan

    • Examination of classical and modern sociological thinkers and their theories.
  2. “Masters of Sociological Thought” by Lewis A. Coser

    • Biographies and key ideas of major sociological thinkers.

Supplementary Materials

  1. “IGNOU BA and MA Sociology Notes”

    • Well-structured notes that cover the syllabus comprehensively.
  2. “Yojana and Kurukshetra Magazines”

    • Useful for current affairs and contemporary social issues in India.

Practice and Revision

  1. “Question Banks and Previous Years’ Papers”

    • Practicing previous years’ question papers and mock tests to understand the exam pattern and improve answer writing skills.
  2. “GEO IAS Notes and Test Series”

    • Regular tests and high-quality notes for thorough revision and practice.

Additional Resources

  1. NCERT Books (Class XI and XII)

    • Basic understanding of fundamental concepts in sociology.

Using a combination of these books and resources will help in a comprehensive and effective preparation for the Sociology optional subject in the UPSC Civil Services Examination.

Political Science is a popular optional subject for the UPSC Civil Services Examination due to its relevance to the syllabus of the General Studies papers. Here are some essential books and resources to comprehensively cover the Political Science optional subject:

Paper I: Political Theory and Indian Politics

Part A: Political Theory

  1. “An Introduction to Political Theory” by O.P. Gauba

    • Comprehensive coverage of political theories, ideologies, and key concepts.
  2. “Political Theory: An Introduction” by Rajeev Bhargava and Ashok Acharya

    • Detailed explanations of political theories and philosophical underpinnings.
  3. “A History of Political Thought: Plato to Marx” by Subrata Mukherjee and Sushila Ramaswamy

    • Exploration of the development of political thought from ancient to modern times.

Part B: Indian Government and Politics

  1. “Indian Government and Politics” by B.L. Fadia

    • Detailed analysis of the political system, institutions, and processes in India.
  2. “Indian Polity” by M. Laxmikanth

    • Comprehensive guide to the Indian Constitution, institutions, and political dynamics.
  3. “Introduction to the Constitution of India” by D.D. Basu

    • In-depth analysis of the Indian Constitution and its key provisions.
  4. “Politics in India” by Rajni Kothari

    • Examination of the political system, electoral dynamics, and party politics in India.

Paper II: Comparative Politics and International Relations

Part A: Comparative Politics and International Politics

  1. “Comparative Politics” by Ronald Chilcote

    • Overview of comparative political analysis and methodologies.
  2. “Global Politics” by Andrew Heywood

    • Insight into global political dynamics, international relations theories, and contemporary issues.
  3. “International Relations” by Peu Ghosh

    • Comprehensive coverage of international relations theories, global issues, and key events.
  4. “Globalization of World Politics” by John Baylis, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens

    • Examination of globalization and its impact on world politics.

Part B: India and the World

  1. “India’s Foreign Policy” by V.P. Dutt

    • Historical and contemporary analysis of India’s foreign policy.
  2. “Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy” by Rajiv Sikri

    • Critical evaluation of India’s foreign policy challenges and strategic choices.
  3. “International Politics: Concepts, Theories and Issues” by Rumki Basu

    • Detailed exploration of international political theories and key global issues.

Supplementary and Reference Books

  1. “Politics Among Nations” by Hans J. Morgenthau

    • Classic text on international relations theory and the concept of political realism.
  2. “Theories of Comparative Politics: The Search for a Paradigm Reconsidered” by Ronald H. Chilcote

    • Examination of various theories and paradigms in comparative politics.
  3. “The Oxford Companion to Politics in India” by Niraja Gopal Jayal and Pratap Bhanu Mehta

    • Comprehensive reference on Indian politics and governance.
  4. “India’s Foreign Policy Since Independence” by V.P. Dutt

    • Analysis of the evolution of India’s foreign policy post-independence.

Practice and Revision

  1. Previous Years’ UPSC Question Papers

    • Practicing past papers helps understand the pattern and types of questions asked.
  2. “Political Science and International Relations: Previous Years’ Solved Papers” by R. Rajagopalan

    • Collection of solved previous years’ papers with explanations.
  3. GEO IAS Notes and Test Series

    • High-quality notes and regular tests for effective revision and practice.

Journals and Magazines

  1. “Yojana and Kurukshetra Magazines”

    • Useful for current affairs and contemporary issues related to Indian politics and governance.
  2. “EPW (Economic and Political Weekly)”

    • Articles and essays on current political issues, policies, and international relations.

Online Resources

  1. Online platforms such as GEO IAS
    • For articles, notes, and current affairs relevant to political science and international relations.

Using a combination of these books and resources will help in a thorough and effective preparation for the Political Science optional subject in the UPSC Civil Services Examination.

Preparing for the History optional in the UPSC Civil Services Examination requires a strategic selection of books that comprehensively cover both Paper I and Paper II of the syllabus. Here are the essential books and resources for History optional:

Paper I: Ancient and Medieval India

Ancient India

  1. “Ancient India” by R.S. Sharma

    • Comprehensive coverage of ancient Indian history, including socio-economic, cultural, and political aspects.
  2. “A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century” by Upinder Singh

    • Detailed account of ancient Indian history with rich illustrations and maps.
  3. “The Wonder That Was India” by A.L. Basham

    • Insightful overview of Indian culture and civilization in ancient times.
  4. “Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300” by Romila Thapar

    • Scholarly account of early Indian history focusing on various dynasties and cultural developments.

Medieval India

  1. “Medieval India” by Satish Chandra (Volumes 1 & 2)

    • Detailed analysis of medieval Indian history, including political, economic, and cultural developments.
  2. “A History of Medieval India” by Irfan Habib

    • Comprehensive study of medieval Indian history with a focus on the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire.
  3. “Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India” by J.L. Mehta

    • Extensive coverage of medieval Indian history with in-depth analysis of key events and personalities.

Paper II: Modern India and World History

Modern India

  1. “India’s Struggle for Independence” by Bipan Chandra

    • Detailed account of the Indian independence movement and the freedom struggle.
  2. “India After Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy” by Ramachandra Guha

    • Comprehensive coverage of post-independence Indian history.
  3. “A New Look at Modern Indian History” by B.L. Grover and Alka Mehta

    • Covers modern Indian history with a focus on socio-economic and political changes.
  4. “Modern India: 1885-1947” by Sumit Sarkar

    • Analysis of modern Indian history, focusing on the national movement and colonial period.

World History

  1. “Mastering Modern World History” by Norman Lowe

    • Extensive coverage of world history from the 18th century onwards, focusing on major events and developments.
  2. “History of the World” by Arjun Dev and Indira Arjun Dev

    • Comprehensive overview of world history, with emphasis on key events and global developments.
  3. “Contemporary World History” by Jupp (for specific topics and deeper understanding of world events)

    • Detailed coverage of contemporary world history, including the Cold War, decolonization, and globalization.

Historiography and Historical Interpretation

  1. “Historiography: An Introduction” by E. Sreedharan

    • Insight into the methods and approaches of historiography.
  2. “Itihas” by R.S. Sharma

    • Overview of Indian historiography and its development over time.

Supplementary Reading and Practice

  1. NCERT Books (Class XI and XII)

    • Basic understanding of historical events and developments.
  2. “History of Medieval India” by R.S. Chaurasia

    • Additional resource for medieval Indian history.
  3. “Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India” by Sekhar Bandyopadhyay

    • Detailed account of modern Indian history with an analysis of colonial rule and the freedom struggle.
  4. “Europe Since 1815” by C.D.M. Ketelbey

    • Comprehensive coverage of European history from the 19th century onwards.

Previous Years’ Papers and Notes

  1. Previous Years’ UPSC Question Papers

    • Practicing past papers helps understand the pattern and types of questions asked.
  2. GEO IAS Notes and Test Series

    • High-quality notes and regular tests for effective revision and practice.

Journals and Magazines

  1. “Yojana and Kurukshetra Magazines”

    • Useful for current affairs and contemporary issues related to Indian history and society.
  2. “EPW (Economic and Political Weekly)”

    • Articles and essays on current historical research and interpretations.

Online Resources

  1. Online platforms such as GEO IAS
    • For articles, notes, and current affairs relevant to history optional.

Using a combination of these books and resources will help in a thorough and effective preparation for the History optional subject in the UPSC Civil Services Examination.