Mains Q & A 10 March 2023

Mains Q & A 10 March 2023

Q1. Describe a few of the ISRO's upcoming missions and how they will assist the country leverage space technology for development. (250 words)


Paper & Topic: GS III Science and Technology

Model Answer:


In the 1960s, India started making investments in space research and technology. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has historically prioritised societal development over strategic or security goals when using space technology. Since its modest beginnings five decades ago, India’s space programme has evolved enormously, and it has now earned the right to be regarded as an established space participant. The worth of the global space business is currently estimated to be $350 billion and is likely to surpass $550 billion by 2025. ,


Upcoming proposed missions of ISRO:

The Gaganyaan project is a crewed orbital spacecraft that can travel seven days in space with three people. · It is anticipated to be finished prior to 2022. o The Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC), which will oversee the Gaganyaan Project, was recently established to supervise the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme (HSP).

Aditya-L1: It will be India’s first solar observatory to be launched in 2022 which will be located at the first Lagrangian point (L1) between the Sun and Earth, where the dynamic gravitational force between these two bodies roughly cancel out. o With its seven instruments, it will study the surface and atmosphere of the Sun.

Shukrayaan is a Venus orbiter mission that will be launched in 2025 with the specific goals of examining Venus’ surface and subsurface, atmospheric chemistry, and interactions with the sun’s wind.

Venus’ atmosphere contains a gas that on Earth is associated with living things. Several expeditions to Venus have been suggested in light of the recent indications of possible extraterrestrial life.

In September 2020, scientists have found phosphine compounds on Venus, which could be a biosignature of microbial life.

In order to comprehend the evolution and potential conditions on Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars, scientists also utilise Venus as a model.

X-ray Polarimetry Satellite (XPoSat): The country’s second space observatory will be smaller and more focused. The polarisation of X rays emitted by cosmic objects in Earth’s orbit will be studied.

Indian Data Relay Satellite System: By launching a new satellite series named IDRSS this year, India intends to track and communicate with its own space assets from orbit.

Satellite to satellite communication and data transfer will be made possible by the placement of two IDRSS spacecraft in geostationary orbit.

Other Indian satellites, particularly those in low-Earth orbits (LEO), which have less coverage of the planet, will be tracked, sent, and received in real-time.

It will also be helpful in monitoring launches and helping the Gaganyaan mission team maintain mission control while they are travelling.

In 2022, Chandrayaan-3 will launch a lunar lander and rover.

Obstacles faced by ISRO in space activities:

Astronaut training: India lacks training facilities for astronauts, despite ISRO’s repeated requests for local training facilities for its astronauts since the early 2000s.

Substantial investments needed in projects and chance of failure.

Biosciences: While ISRO has mastered the engineering components of the mission, bioscience is a new subject for ISRO and calls for more technical expertise as well as collaboration and support from other organisations.

Improving GSLV Mk III: Gaganyaan needs a big rocket that can lift a big capsule. Large satellites can be launched into orbit using the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark III, although this rocket must now be suitable for use by people.

Precision in technology: A system’s reliability must be high enough to allow for a failure rate of only one in 500 launches.

Way forward:

establishing a distinct Space Commerce body that is independent of ISRO for space-related operations or a dedicated road map inside ISRO for commercial space in India.

promoting startups because they are scalable globally and have the potential to surpass product/service offerings coming from India.

ISRO mentoring enables the private sector to effectively utilise the technical expertise developed by ISRO.

enactment of space legislation To establish clear timetables for the commercial space industry’s pursuit of space operations in terms of regulatory, legal, and procedural frameworks.

Draft Space Activities Bill, 2017 was designed to promote and govern space activities of India. It discussed how the Department of Space supervised and gave permission for private sector organisations to participate in space activities in India.

Q2. A humanitarian approach can resolve intractable issues where all other means have failed," claims quote 6. Elaborate (250 Words)


Paper & Topic: GS IV Ethics related issues

Model Answer:


The “lack of humanity” is a regular occurrence that is creating issues for the entire world. A list of virtues that all people should possess makes up what it means to be human. Kindness, compassion, honesty, bravery, tolerance for differences, empathy, respect, integrity, thoughtfulness, etc. are some examples of these attributes or qualities.

This globe would not have a sordid history of colonialism, imperialism, slavery, apartheid, or even the two world wars that shook this world if humanistic approach instead of man’s avarice had been more prevalent.


Intractable issues are resolved with a humane approach:

What ties all people together is their diversity in culture and religious beliefs. It implies that people observe various rituals and hold various religious and cultural values. These distinctions have the potential to divide people from various cultures. Humanity’s shared language, however, is one thing that can bring people together despite their differences.

Ensures Peace: Being tolerant of people with various viewpoints and backgrounds is a quality that defines mankind. As we accept one another’s diversity, the world becomes less chaotic, which leads to less conflict and the emergence of peace. The world will be peaceful and happy if all people employ the weapon of humanity, as well as the governments of all states.

Holocaust against Jews may have been avoided with a humanitarian attitude.

The current conflict of civilizations may have no other resolution but a compassionate one.

If they had compassion, terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS might not have existed.

Humanity is the Ethic: It is true that the term “humanity” also refers to moral principles and ethical conduct. Humane behaviour is also referred to as ethical behaviour.

For its personnel, many institutions and organisations create an ethical code of conduct.

Many of the claws are modelled by fundamental human characteristics. There won’t be a need to coercively enforce ethical behaviour if every person seeks to enhance and develop their human qualities.

The problems with morality and ethics in society can be resolved through more humanity.

Decreased Crime Rate: Humanity is primarily to blame for the rise in crime in today’s globe.

Indeed, there are instances when a criminal is compelled to commit a crime by the circumstances that life has placed before them.

The lack of humanity displayed by those in positions of authority who are preoccupied with corruption and disregard the needs of the underclass continues to be the foundation of the problem.

There will be less crime in the world if there is humanity.

The same is true for stopping criminals from committing crimes, whether they are motivated by need or by fun.

Not a War: If we look back in history, even just a few decades, we will see that there have been many wars in many parts of the world. Proxy wars between some nations have made the conditions in Syria, Afghanistan, Lebanon, and many other nations worse.

Additionally, there are nations with military tensions between them, such as India and Pakistan, that are engaged in a war or a situation that resembles a war.

The leaders and authorities of both countries lacked humanity and exhibited poor judgement, which led to these wars.

War must end as soon as nations recognise the value of people. Instead, pay attention to how their countries’ citizens are actually developing.


Humanity’s significance is a major issue. More than ever, the globe needs to address this issue. The contribution of humans to the world cannot be disputed. Everyone can live in a better world if humanism is practised. But, it takes work on our part to act with humanity; while it may not always seem like the best course of action, it is the only one that people are capable of. If humanity existed among us and was supported by others, the earth would have been a pleasant place to live.

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