Mains Q & A 16 December 2022

Mains Q & A 16 December 2022

Q1. What are tropical cyclones exactly, and how are they categorised in the Atlantic-Northeast Pacific Ocean region? Give an explanation of how a tropical cyclone forms. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS II Government Policies and Interventions


Any significant wind system that cycles counterclockwise to the north of the equator and clockwise around a centre of low pressure is considered a tropical cyclone. Except for the equatorial belt, cyclonic winds can be found almost anywhere on the planet’s surface. They frequently arrive in the rain or snow.

Hurricane Ida, which swamped coastal areas in Louisiana on Monday, cut off power to the whole city of New Orleans and continued along a hazardous path through the Gulf Coast, raising the risk of further devastation.


Tropical cyclone classification for the Atlantic-Northeast Pacific Ocean region:

They fall into the following categories:

A tropical storm that has maximum sustained winds of 38 mph (33 knots) or less is referred to as a tropical depression.

Maximum sustained wind speeds from a tropical cyclone range from 39 to 73 mph (34 to 63 knots).

A hurricane is a tropical cyclone with winds of at least 74 mph (64 knots). In the Indian and South Pacific Oceans, hurricane-like storms are referred to as typhoons, while hurricanes in the western North Pacific are referred to as cyclones.

Major Hurricane: A tropical cyclone with sustained winds of at least 111 mph and a Category 3, 4, or 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (96 knots).

Prerequisites for the development of tropical cyclones:

large sea surface with a Coriolis force present and a temperature of at least 27 °C;

Upper divergence of the system above sea level; minor fluctuations in vertical wind speed; an existing weak low-pressure area; low-level cyclonic circulation.

The process through which a tropical cyclone forms:

Condensation in the massive cumulonimbus clouds that encircle the centre of the storm is what fuels its escalation.

The storm is becoming stronger due to the constant input of moisture from the sea. The longer they are at sea, the stronger they get.

As a storm approaches land, its source of moisture is cut off, and the moisture evaporates. The location where a tropical storm makes landfall is referred to as the “cyclone’s touchdown.”

Cyclones usually cause more damage when they recurve and cross the 20oN latitude.

The eye, or center, of a developed tropical cyclone can be recognised by the intense wind spiraling around it. The circulating system’s diameter can range from 150 to 250 kilometers. The area around the eye is serene and calming.

Until it reaches the tropopause, air spirals along the eye wall, which surrounds the eye, steadily ascending to higher altitudes. The wind here has the potential to gust as high as 250 km/h. It heavily rains here.

Rain bands and trains of cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds may leave the eye wall and move outside the atmosphere.


Stronger tropical cyclones are probably being brought on by the warming of the ocean’s surface caused by human-caused climate change. Rising sea levels, which most likely have a significant global influence from anthropogenic climate change, increase the destructive potential of specific tropical storms through flooding. To lessen the harm done, adaptive and mitigating measures must be implemented as soon as is practical.

Q2. What does the expression “rules-based international order” mean in the context of international relations? Take a look at the various dangers the global norms system confronts. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS II Government Policies and Interventions


The set of laws, norms, and organisations that regulate interactions is referred to as the “rules-based international order” in the West. Examples of concepts that have emerged from and through formal organisations, international law, and treaties include the promotion and advancement of democracy, equality, and human rights.

Unprecedented levels of peace, prosperity, and freedom have been brought about by the rules-based, post-World War II international order, which is governed by friends and partners who share the same objectives, but it is now under increasing attack.


Threats to the international system based on rules:

According to international scholars and current leaders, evolving international power relations and continuous geostrategic disputes are to blame for the ambiguity and probable instability of the global system.

The multilateral system is possibly going through its biggest crisis since it was established in the years following World War II. We can no longer assume that everyone thinks that a global legal system provides the best protection for our safety and prosperity.

A cautionary tale in this regard is the dissolution of the Appellate Body, the World Trade Organization’s highest dispute resolution body (WTO). In December 2019, it became dysfunctional as a result of the U.S. government’s steadfast refusal to name additional members.

The system is under attack from revisionist, authoritarian countries, especially China, as a result of the resurgence of great-power competition.

Nuclear and missile projects are being pursued by regional powers.

Various extremist organisations, including terrorism, ISIS, the Taliban, and others, pose hazards to the world.

Populist movements are against international economic fusion.

g.: Due to populism, former US President Donald Trump breached a number of agreements; Brexit is another illustration.

More often than not, it is questioned if the United States is competent and willing to continue to lead the system.

Consider the most recent emigration from Afghanistan following the Taliban’s takeover.

International law and order are also seriously threatened by the way the world is now run.

These unfavorable trends have been increased by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has also introduced fresh shocks to the system.

Moving ahead:

The international community will need to take considerable strategic action to strengthen the international rule of law over the next ten years in order to support multilateralism and improve the capacity of global governance.

The international community should take advantage of the 75th anniversary of the United Nations as a chance to evaluate its own progress, take stock, and begin pursuing ambitious new goals that are consistent with the principles upon which the Charter and the United Nations were established.

One of the key prerequisites for India’s assertion of multilateralism and a rules-based system is a strong institutional framework.

The UNSC chair that India presently holds might be used to advance multilateral institution reforms and bring about world peace.

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