Mains Q & A 2 March 2023

Mains Q & A 2 March 2023

Q1. How have social media impacted young Indian women? (250 Words)


Paper & Topic: GS I Women Empowerment

Model Answer:


Feminist ideas have spread quickly and widely thanks in large part to the social media world we now live in. As a force for social change, social media has supported and promoted women’s emancipation in a variety of ways, including by drawing attention to women’s rights in the local community and by combating prejudice and stereotypes globally. Social media has created a place for discussing issues and difficulties faced by women that are often not covered or supported by mainstream media through blogs, chats, online campaigns, discussion forums, and online communities.


Social media’s positive effects on women’s lives include:

For today’s tech-savvy populace, social media is readily accessible and acts as a hub.

Women’s rights:

Without a doubt, there is a direct link between social media and women’s rights.

All gates and gatekeeping of any kind have been eliminated by social media by opening doors and making everything available to everyone, everywhere.

Social media’s unrivalled ability to raise awareness has quickly benefited movements for women’s rights and violations of those rights.

Social media has developed into a tool that women may use to combat issues like stereotype and gender inequality.

Cutting down on female violence:

In addition to helping activists and others refute myths and misconceptions, the internet and social media also create new opportunities for the resurrection of violence against women.

campaigns using hashtags to combat hatred and violence

It’s a new frontier for women’s rights activists to plan a protest or campaign to raise awareness and fight for gender equality.

Social media has allowed women to interact with one another and assist one another in the fight for gender equality, including lawmakers, legislators, and entrepreneurs.

Women can follow topics that are relevant to them and build alliances based on shared interests on Twitter, particularly with the hashtag feature. These causes can range from pressing personal needs to calls for fundamental social change. For instance, the #SelfieWithDaughter and #MeToo movements.

 Women entrepreneurs:

Social media is increasingly becoming one of the most efficient channels for women trying to start new enterprises due to their ability to interact and have direct discussions with clients and consumers.

Female business entrepreneurs can use social media marketing in a very simple and cost-effective way.

Millions of people can now start businesses that cater to a worldwide market or find online jobs thanks to social media and new technologies.

For instance, Shradha Sharma is the founder and editor-in-chief of the online media portal for start-ups. It is the top online media platform in India and has published over 20,000 entrepreneurial stories in 12 Indian languages, reaching over 10 million people each month.

Summing up the views:

It is less expensive to contribute to a cause or take part in a demonstration thanks to digital channels. More participation is encouraged as a result, and governments are forced to pay attention.

Social media levels the playing field by allowing diverse viewpoints from people with and without traditional power to be heard. The underrepresentation of women is still a problem, and it probably will get worse.

It fills in the gaps as women only receive 38% of bylines in traditional media.

Global Communities:

Female-based communities are emerging in such a way that they circumvent specialised enterprises and physical limitations to join female players across sectors and locales.

Formerly isolated women may now interact with influential people in their profession and, conversely, develop an accessible, highly visible platform for self-promotion since the internet removes so many of the barriers that keep us apart.

The conventional wisdom that women find it more difficult to profit from ideas and proposals is being challenged by the combination of social media and crowdfunding.

Women, for instance, shared black-and-white images of themselves on Instagram in July 2020 along with the hashtag “#challengeaccepted.” In order to participate in the challenge, women had to submit a black-and-white selfie of themselves along with the nomination of another woman. They also had to tag the other woman in their selfie.

 Overcoming challenges:

Social media use enables a more accurate portrayal of women globally, particularly those from countries with oppressive political regimes. Social media also dismantles barriers of the governmental, cultural, and other varieties.

Despite the lockdown and social exclusion, it has been essential in enabling activism to go on during the pandemic.

The negative impact of social media on women:

Cyberbullying, including online harassment, is particularly harmful to women.

Due to the increasing attention women receive on social media, they are usually the target of repressive operations. Women face gendered obstacles as a result of this in public places and online.

Online offences are commonly normalised as a result of the difficulties in discovering criminals, as well as the complexity and accessibility of the justice delivery systems.

This leads to a rise in public mistrust of the legal system and increased marginalisation of women.

Due to this, rapists are now utilising social media as a tool of intimidation to persuade their victims to keep the crime a secret.

Such venues are used by harassers to silence women who challenge patriarchal societal norms.

A research found that one-third of the women ceased posting their opinions online due to worries about internet predators.

Bullying on the internet now affects actual events like suicides.

20% of women who suffer harassment offline believe that the assaults are related to the abuse they endure online, according to a global poll of women.

Some people are even more at risk of being stalked because of their online presence. This is particularly common in places with weak law enforcement, persistent sexism, and profusion of internet trolling.

False profiles are usually created with the intention of harming their victims’ reputations.

The internet has recently been employed as a tool for discriminating against women as a result of the widespread usage of hate campaigns. like vengeance porn.

Because of the pandemic’s global restrictions, which have pushed more people online, cases of gender harassment have surged online.

What must be done:

Governmental: The National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal shall be designated as the national portal under-reporting obligations for electronic material under the POCSO Act.

The Union Government, through its designated authority, shall be able to block and/or prohibit any websites and intermediaries that host child sex abuse content.

Law enforcement agencies should be authorised to break end-to-end encryption in order to uncover child pornographers.

In 2018, a cybercrime portal was launched to provide users with a mechanism to report inappropriate content.

For reporting and investigating cybercrime events, each state has set up cyber police stations and cybercrime cells.

Artificial intelligence applications: Software has been created that can analyse each internet user’s behaviour. So, it may help to protect the user from participating in online abuse.

developing several mobile applications that can alert parents when a child is in risk from cyberbullying.

To stop malware attacks, collaborate with antivirus firms.

a method to case management with several facets

Instances of cyberbullying demand a diverse approach, including therapy with a psychiatrist, alerting the police, etc.

Moving ahead:

The moral obligation of social media firms is to safeguard their users.

In order for individuals to use reporting mechanisms to reduce cyberbullying, they must work to make them transparent and efficient.

Platforms for social media accountability

The policy on women’s empowerment must include steps to combat online harassment.

A unit for reporting crimes against women online must be established in order to more promptly address complaints regarding targeted harassment of female social media users.

expanding women’s political participation in order to combat inequality, bigotry, and misogyny.

The primary legal framework utilised to address cybercrimes perpetrated on social media platforms is the IPC section that deals with classic offences including sexual harassment and privacy violations.

They are largely ineffectual in dealing with technologically inspired crimes, which have a bigger effect on victims than those traditional offences, due to the lack of justice.

The IPC must be modified, and the cybercrimes covered by the IT Act must be repealed, in order to include all cybercrimes, including those currently covered by that legislation.


Social media, as a part of a knowledge society in the age of new media, makes a substantial contribution to the empowerment of women by giving users—especially women—strategies for making more informed decisions whenever and wherever they are, which might not otherwise be possible.

Q2. Despite being a significant part of the Indian Constitution, fundamental rights have drawn criticism. Provide details (250 words)


Paper & Topic: GS II Indian Constitution

Model Answer:


The term “fundamental rights” refers to the universal human rights of all people. These rights are outlined in Part III of the Indian Constitution, which also stipulates that everyone has a right to them without exception. They are enforceable by the courts and limited in scope. These FRs are a penalty for promoting political democracy’s objective.


The Value of Fundamental Rights:

The basis of political democracy.

provides both moral and physical security.

a pillar of individual liberty.

promote the development of the rule of law.

protect the rights of society’s marginalised and underprivileged populations.

support the secular framework of the Indian state.

acts as a check on the power that the government has uncontrolled.

Defenses of fundamental rights:

Excessive constraints:

They are subject to numerous restrictions, conditions, exclusions, and justifications.

There are no social or economic rights:

The list is not exhaustive because political rights make up the majority of the items on it.

The right to social security, the right to employment, the right to leisure and rest, among other significant social and economic rights, are not addressed.

Lack of Clarity:

They are delivered in an evasive, muddled, and vague way.

Several words and phrases used in the chapter, such as “public order,” “minorities,” “reasonable restriction,” and “public interest,” lack definitions.

They are discussed in exceedingly complex technical language that is not understandable to the common individual.

Untrue Permanent:

Because the Parliament has the authority to limit or abolish them, as it did with the fundamental right to property in 1978, they are neither absolute nor unalterable.

Hence, lawmakers who have the backing of the majority in the House can use them like a plaything.

Emergency Case Suspension:

The suspension of these rights’ application while the National Emergency is in effect is another stain on their efficacy (with the exception of Articles 20 and 21).

This clause consistently undermines the rights of millions of innocent people, shattering the democratic framework of the country.

The judiciary must uphold these rights and defend them against interference from the legislative and executive departments.

Regrettably, the common citizen cannot use the courts to uphold his rights due to the high cost of the legal system.

The preventative detention provision (Article 22) is criticised for allegedly removing the spirit and substance of the basic rights chapter. It erodes personal freedom and grants the State undue authority.

It supports the claim that the Indian Constitution prioritises preserving the State’s rights over an individual’s ability to protect their own rights.

Many detractors claim that the chapter on fundamental rights lacks a conceptual framework.

Sir Ivor Jennings articulated this view when he claimed that the Fundamental Rights proclaimed by the Indian Constitution are not founded on any coherent philosophy.


The concept of “reserved rights” or the notion of natural law are not the foundations of the Fundamental Rights as they are set down in Part III of the Constitution. They are given rights and act as exemplary citizens for the present generation’s social goals. Fundamental rights must be modified in order to fulfil people’s aims in light of changing circumstances and their living situations because social values are dynamic. Because of this, the architects of the Constitution did not mean for rights to be unassailable; otherwise, they would not have taken the chance of trying to strike a balance or bring rights and the needs and welfare of society as a whole into harmony.

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