Mains Q & A 5 January 2023

Mains Q & A 5 January 2023

Q1. What is neurodiversity? Give examples of the benefits of hiring a neuro diverse workforce and the actions that must be taken to promote neurodiversity in the workplace. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS III Science and Technology

Model Answer:


Neurodiversity in the workplace involves the inclusion of people with neurodivergent conditions such ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, and Asperger’s Syndrome. According to Harvard Health Publishing, neurodiversity is the premise that every person interacts with and interprets their surroundings differently. There is no one correct method of thinking, learning, or acting. These differences shouldn’t be seen as defects or illnesses.


The neuro diverse workforce:

According to a recent survey, the neurological and developmental condition known as autism affects almost 2 million people in India.

A different Deloitte survey estimates that 20% of the world’s population is neurodiverse.
85% of Americans who are on the autism spectrum, compared to 4.2% of the overall population, are estimated to be unemployed.

Therefore, it is crucial to create an environment at work that values neurodiverse individuals.
It is unfair that businesses won’t hire these people even if they have the necessary education and experience because they might react to events differently than those who don’t have neurodiverse features. The issue may be exacerbated by a lack of understanding about neurodivergent disorders, but it’s time for organisations to promote a more accepting culture.

A neurodiverse workforce has several benefits, including:

Companies that value neurodiversity have an edge over their rivals in a variety of areas, including culture, innovation, and efficiency.

A JPMorgan Chase study found that professionals in the “Autism at Work” programme were 90% to 140% more productive and made fewer mistakes than neurotypical colleagues.

Additionally, studies have indicated that teams with both neurotypical and neurodivergent individuals perform noticeably better than teams with exclusively neurotypical members.
More than their neurotypical counterparts, those who are neurodivergent exhibit extraordinary attention to detail and the ability to focus for extended periods of time on challenging, repetitive tasks.

According to a University of Montreal study, people on the autistic spectrum were able to finish their job 40% faster than people who were not on the spectrum in a test involving the completion of a visual pattern.

Dyslexics also possess superior spatial reasoning, which enables them to conceptualise and analyse three-dimensional objects even with little to no information.
Because of their aptitude for problem-solving, they can recognise a variety of solutions to a given issue. They frequently exhibit above average intelligence and have original thought processes.

Encouraging neurodiversity at work:

Organizations including Deloitte, Microsoft, SAP, JPMorgan Chase, and E&Y have adopted neurodiversity hiring programmes.

Examples of companies with neurodiverse workforces include those with Indian heritage like Hatti Kaapi and Lemon Tree Hotels.

Taking a proactive management approach Teams from leadership and human resources must work together to ensure that people with neurodiversities are welcomed and supported at work.
Include: The process of developing an inclusive culture include customising interviews, ensuring that people with special needs receive daily assistance, and putting in place the required infrastructure so they may perform to the best of their abilities.

Obstacles must be removed: Organizations must not only get rid of things that prevent these people from moving up, but also create conditions that allow them to reach their maximum potential.

Mentoring: While some people can gain from mentoring programmes, others might require specialised training in interpersonal and communication skills. Many people with neurodiversity may be disturbed by the noise in a typical office. Neurodivergent-friendly workplaces that take into account the workers’ various sensory sensitivities can help to ensure that these employees feel at ease in their working environments.


However, creating the perfect workplace is a constant process that necessitates openness from the employer and a readiness to change. This flexibility can result in remarkable benefits with little to no additional cost. To ensure enhanced profitability and earn respect as a responsible employer on a global scale, businesses need to widen their concept of inclusivity by encouraging greater engagement from a neurodiverse workforce.

Q2. The civil service is the foundation of modern administration since it is essential to the formulation of governmental policy. Discuss. (250 words) (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS III Civil Services related issues

Model Answer:


The contribution of government officials to the formulation and implementation of policies is crucial to the development process. By helping with the creation of large-scale policy proposals, the evaluation of potential remedies and alternatives to urgent societal problems, the division of large-scale policies into smaller ones, the choice of an action plan, and the suggestion of modifications to an existing policy based on implementation experience, they support the identification of key policy areas.


The core of modern government is the civil service:

They gather relevant data and information in an effort to identify the root causes of the issues. The necessary information must be gathered, evaluated for content, and absorbed by the Civil Servants.
They then assist the government by providing relevant data to back up policy recommendations.
Due to their excellent administrative skills and the capacity of the civil services, they are aware of a wide range of issues and concerns impacting the nation.

They subsequently served as the government’s “think tank,” putting their newly acquired skills to use.

The civil servants help the political executive identify policy issues by providing suggestions on the nature of worries and the need to bring them up for attention at higher levels.
The civil service analyses the issue that will be the focus of policy creation. It then defines and reframes policy ideas while keeping in mind their viability, future prospects, accessibility of resources, acceptance, etc.

The civil services are also in duty of assessing suggested policies in light of the provisions of the Constitution, draught laws from Parliament, and other relevant laws and regulations.
In this approach, the civil services support the development of wise and useful policies.
Civil servants are responsible for putting the government’s policies and programmes into action. It regulates social behaviour by upholding the law.

No matter how well-liked the government’s ideas and objectives are, how far along its development plans are, or how many resources the country has, little can be accomplished without civil services.
An efficient civil service can cut down on waste, correct errors, and lessen the effects of incompetence or irresponsibility when implementing laws and public policy.

Distinct commitments and jobs:

Setting realistic development priorities in sectors like communications, health, and education, etc. the development and implementation of plans and programmes for the development and modernization of the nation. For instance, planning at the district, state, and federal levels.
developing new administrative structures and improving their capacity to support developmental objectives.

To expand agriculture, civil authorities must efficiently manage community resources such land, water resources, forests, wetlands, and wasteland development. For instance, Umakant Umrao, the district collector of Dewas, helped Madhya Pradesh’s farmers combat the drought by constructing more than 16,000 ponds.

To encourage industrial development, infrastructure utilities like roads, energy, communications, market centres, etc. must be provided. In these countries, the civil service is in charge of managing state-owned enterprises, commercial enterprises, and public utility services. Ritu Maheshwari, an IAS official, installed new smart electricity metres to tackle Kanpur’s endemic electricity theft.
Achieving developmental objectives requires the development, mobilisation, and wise use of resources, including natural, human, and financial ones. P In Madhya Pradesh, Narahari worked to remove obstacles from the way so that people with disabilities could travel in safety and independence.

Having the right mindset about the socioeconomic changes taking place in society is essential for including the public in the development process and winning their support for development projects. In Warangal, “the people’s officer” and IAS member Smita Sabharwal launched the “Fund Your City” initiative. She requested help from the community in building the infrastructure for the Naxal-affected districts, and as a result, traffic intersections and pedestrian overpasses were built.


The focus of the discussion concerning development and administration has shifted to the citizen. The Civil Services, one of the most significant institutions of governance, act as a bridge between the state and the populace. Both controlling programmes and gathering comments and ideas depend on this interface.

The focus on citizens and the numerous links between several policy areas make this more common nowadays. The majority of government operations are now managed by the civil services, providing citizens with quick and individualised grievance procedures. As a result, they become crucial, especially in terms of closing the gap between voter expectations and the results of government activities.

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