Mains Q & A 7 March 2023

Mains Q & A 7 March 2023

Q1. The best way to ensure India's long-term security goals is to strike the correct balance between continental and maritime security. Take the Eurasian and Indo-Pacific continents into consideration when reading the statement. (250 Words)


Paper & Topic: GS II International Relations

Model Answer:


Essentially, communism is a philosophy composed of three parts:

On a continental level, the frontiers with Pakistan and China are becoming more militarised, and it appears more likely than not that the Siachen Glacier will house a long-term deployment in the Ladakh region. It would take time and effort to develop a fruitful continental strategy for India to handle this issue. Although we concentrate on the continental side, India needs to build a marine policy that is equally significant and uninfluenced by Western countries.


India faces difficulties in the Eurasian region as a result of:

Because of American hostility towards Iran, it is now difficult to operationalize the International North-South Transport Corridor.

Iran Blockade: It may seem strange given that we support freedom of navigation in the maritime domain alongside the U.S. and others that we do not vehemently demand that India be permitted to conduct interstate trade, commerce, and transit along continental routes, whether through the lifting of Pakistan’s transit blockade or the lifting of U.S. sanctions against transit through Iran into Eurasia.

Afghan conflict: India’s physical connectivity issues with Eurasia have gotten worse as a result of recent changes there.

The fast economic growth of China, NATO’s sudden withdrawal of its soldiers from Afghanistan, and the rising of Islamic fundamentalist movements are all new dangers. India’s isolation from the Eurasian continent must end owing to connectivity.

India must strike a balance between continental and regional security:

The Security and Growth for Everyone in the Area (SAGAR) project for the Indian Ocean Region, the major Indo-Pacific efforts, and the Quad, in which maritime security plays a crucial role, are evidence of India’s increased marine vision and objectives over the past ten years.

The historical underestimation of India’s marine power has long overdue correction.

Also, it was a reaction to China’s sudden increase in military might.

It might also be the outcome of erroneous Anglo-Saxon strategic thinking, which tends to overemphasise the maritime aspects of China’s military growth.

Indian long-term security measures consist of:

India won’t have the option of picking one over the other in the future, therefore we’ll need to develop a strategic vision and use the appropriate tools to advance our continental aims without compromising our marine aspirations.

This will require us to cooperate with our partners in Central Asia, Iran, and Russia to advance our continental rights, particularly those of access and transit, and to take a more active role in organisations with economic and security agendas like the SCO, Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Since we don’t have many other options (CSTO).

Afghanistan needs to be stabilised but not sufficiently. A back-up route to Central Asia and Eurasia is required.


The best defence for our long-term security objectives would be to strike a balance between continental and marine security. That won’t be simple, though, because we’ll have to collaborate with many partners on many projects while their geopolitical contradictions are on display. India would have to establish its own standards for maritime and continental security that are consistent with its own objectives. If we can maintain our ability for independent thought and action (particularly, strategic autonomy) at a moment of significant geopolitical upheaval, our diplomacy and statecraft will be better able to navigate the challenging terrain and the stormy waters that lie ahead.

Q2. Does online education teach our children the necessary human traits? Discuss. (250 words)


Paper & Topic: GS II Social Issues

Model Answer:


The influence of education on a person’s personality and approach to life’s obstacles is commonly acknowledged. Due to the focus being placed on living knowledge rather than bookish information, there has been a tidal change in education.

Children learn skills by watching one another and copying what they see other children doing. That is a crucial component that is absent from remote learning. Online learning lacks the social component that makes learning a social activity.


Also, the interactions that students have with their professors—relationships that allow them to explain concepts and ask questions—have a favourable socioemotional impact on children. That process is much easier to finish in a classroom.

The shortcomings of online learning include a lack of human values respect and interpersonal engagement.

By keeping kids out of school, we deprive them of the physical play and social interaction that are vital to their development and emotional health.

A youngster learns to move beyond the conventional way of rote learning in the new educational setting.

The flexible curriculum promotes inquiry, and students are taught to establish their own conclusions.

The importance of imagination is constantly emphasised.

A thorough curriculum and play-based learning lead to a strong cognitive system.

There are none of the aforementioned factors that affect children’s personality.

They lose their capacity to impart to kids the values of kinship, loyalty, kindness, and compassion.

Children are not motivated. When young people don’t know how long this new way of life will last, making plans for the future might be difficult.

Absence of one-on-one interactions with teachers and peers will likely also have an impact because those exchanges help students build their fundamental social emotional skills. They get the ability to understand people, recognise when to help and when to apologise.

Youngsters that play sports develop their teamwork and cooperation skills.

Conflict doesn’t happen nearly as frequently in online classes, but teachers can still assist students in resolving issues by becoming involved.

One neurodevelopmental disorder that adversely affects pupils’ executive function is ADHD.

But, during pandemics, we need to adapt to the circumstances. Although though skipping school might have negative impacts on a child’s mental health, psychologists believe it is possible to mitigate such effects if parents and teachers are willing to use what research on effective learning practises has shown.

Children who take part in distant learning can improve their ability to track their progress towards goals more rapidly and earlier in life.


To encourage children’s sense of autonomy, teachers must provide them options for how they complete the activities. On the assignments they complete for their online courses, students are required to provide thorough, truthful feedback. At times of pandemics, we must adapt to the circumstances. Although though skipping school might have negative impacts on a child’s mental health, psychologists believe it is possible to mitigate such effects if parents and teachers are willing to use what research on effective learning practises has shown.

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