News & Editorial Analysis 22 May 2023

News & Editorial Analysis 22 May 2023

The Hindu News Analysis



1 – Green Energy Open Access Rules, 2022: 


Topic à Government Policies and Interventions




Industry executives were requested by the Union Power & NRE Ministry to develop green goals and report violations of the Green Energy Open Access Rules.


About Open Access:


Non-discriminatory access to the transmission and distribution of energy is known as “Open Access” (OA).


Green Open Access Rules: What Are They?


 It alludes to rules and regulations put in place by the Indian government to encourage the production, acquisition, and consumption of green energy.


The Electricity (Promoting Renewable Energy through Green Energy Open Access) Rules, 2022 were announced by the Ministry of Power in June 2022.


What the Rules Are:




To make clean and green energy accessible, dependable, sustainable, and cheap for everyone in India.




Any user with a linked load of 100 kW or more can obtain renewable energy from any renewable energy generating facility through open access.


Accessibility for all parties involved, including traders, power exchanges, national, regional, and state load dispatch centres, as well as central and state transmission utilities.




The open access must be granted within 15 days, failing which, it will be taken as granted.

Customers may ask DISCOMs for a source of green power.

Consumers who are commercial or industrial are permitted to voluntarily purchase green power.

A unified Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) shall exist. Green hydrogen and green ammonia are also incorporated to complete its RPO.

promoting the production, use, and consumption of green energy, including energy from plants that convert waste to energy




It offers a clear, concise, uniform, and efficient process for allowing free access to green energy. Additionally, it permits the integration of Renewable Energy (RE) resources into the grid and the strengthening of energy markets.

India’s PositionDespite having around 17% of the world’s population, India only contributes 3.5% to the global pollution. India is leading the world’s shift to clean energy and has the fastest rate of increase in RE capacity.

Source à The Hindu


2 – Groundwater Exploitation: 


           Topic à Water Conservation:




Land sinking/subsidence has long been an issue in the northwest Indian plains (Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and Faridabad), where agricultural practises mainly rely on groundwater withdrawal.


India’s groundwater situation:


It is the water source that India uses the most, making up a quarter of all groundwater extraction worldwide.

The 2021 CAG report states that groundwater exploitation in India has surpassed the pace of recharge (year use: 433 billion cubic metres), posing a threat to 80% of potable water over the following two decades.


What is subsidence of land?


The gradual or abrupt sinking of the earth’s surface due to the removal or displacement of subsurface earth components (such aquifers) brought on by natural or human action is known as land subsidence.




How does groundwater extraction relate to land subsidence?


The deep water channels known as aquifers, which serve as reservoirs for percolated water, go dry if they aren’t replenished. As a result, the rock and soil layers above them begin to sink, and this problem is not exclusive to north India.


How bad is the situation in India?


According to Sentinel-1 data, the NCR region subsided by 15 mm annually (on average) between 2011 and 2017.

Major causes of land subsidence, which were compounded by groundwater extraction, included urbanisation and uncontrolled growth.




If land sinking spreads out across a wide area, this might indicate that the area will start to flood more frequently.

However, if the rate of sinking varies, it might have an impact on civil infrastructure, including roads, structures, and homes.

Building foundations may degrade or develop cracks as a result.


Identifying the connection between land subsidence and groundwater:


The Jal Shakti Ministry’s subsidiary, the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), does not examine the effects of “over-exploitation.”

The GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data, which could monitor minute changes in gravity on various sections of the Earth’s surface, was only recently able to shed light on this connection.


Why is it challenging to find the link?


In contrast to landslides and earthquake-caused terrain displacement, it is gradual and hardly noticeable every year.

It is therefore more difficult to link structural damage to it.


What should be done?


There has to be more awareness of the effects that groundwater exploitation has on the environment in addition to water constraint.

The geophysical characteristics of the places experiencing subsidence should be thoroughly understood by the government and decision-makers.

Encouragement of rainwater collection, severe enforcement of regulations prohibiting unauthorised groundwater extraction, evaluation of building conditions in hazard areas, and consideration of such subsidence in building designs.




Several actions:


Groundwater Summit of the United Nations 2022:


a campaign to promote groundwater conservation.


The UN-Water campaign “Groundwater: Making the Invisible Visible” will last all of 2022.


A groundwater management programme called Atal Bhujal Yojana was introduced in 2019.


Jal Shakti Abhiyan (2019): This initiative was started to help 256 districts that struggle with water shortages.


Program for Aquifer Mapping and Management

Source à The Hindu


3 – India Data Capacity Accelerator: 


       Topic à Government Policies and Interventions




The India Data Capacity Accelerator is a data skilling programme that has been launched by the Rockefeller Foundation, Mastercard, and with a grant of over $2 million from the U.K.-based charity Wellcome.




The programme seeks to teach one million Indians how to use data to address issues with the environment and their health.




The accelerator will cooperate with the South Asia division of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) and three universities: Asoka University, the Indraprastha Institute for Information Technology, and BITS Pilani.




The illustration can be used to issues including the development of skills and the use of data to forecast and measure air pollution and guide mitigating measures.

Source à The Hindu


4 – Baobab Tree: 


    Topic à Environmental Conservation related issues:





Following a protest by the Bhil tribes, the Madhya Pradesh government concluded that the forest department could not approve the transfer of Baobab trees in Dhar.




According to the Biodiversity Act, the state biodiversity board will need to approve any commercial use of the trees.

Deciduous baobab trees can be found in Australia, Madagascar, and continental Africa. They can live up to 2,000 years and are renowned for their exceptional longevity. They have barrel-shaped trunks that range in height from 5 to 20 metres.

Succulent baobab trees can produce fruit that is nutrient-dense during dry seasons because they can store water in their trunk.

It contains pendulous blooms that bats and bush babies use as pollinators.




Food, animal feed, medication, and raw materials should all be available.




Since 2005, 5 of the 6 largest trees and 9 of the 13 oldest African baobab specimens have died or collapsed, presumably as a result of climate change.


The forest department’s decision to remove baobab trees for commercial purposes is opposed by the Bhil tribe of Central India.


GI Tag:


The government of Madhya Pradesh has requested a GI designation for baobabs.

Source à The Hindu

#India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS

The Hindu Editorial Analysis





Following the publication of its Voluntary Local Review (VLR), Bhopal became the first city in India to join the expanding global movement on localising the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


SDG Definitions:


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a group of 17 interconnected Global Goals that are intended to serve as a road map for a sustainable and inclusive future.

The United Nations General Assembly created the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2014, with the goal of achieving them by the year 2030.

The resolution titled Agenda 2030 by the General Assembly included the Sustainable Development Goals.

The Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 are aimed at “Transforming the World.”


Voluntary National Review (VNR):


In order to be accountable to the people, the resolution outlines procedures for tracking, evaluating, and reporting progress.

Members of the UN’s High Level Political Forum (HLPF) submit a voluntary national review (VNR) to this aim.

VNR is a method by which nations evaluate their progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda, as well as any obstacles they may be facing.

VLRs have more recently been used to promote and track local SDG implementation at the city and subnational levels.


India’s development:


The SDGs have been adopted, localised, and achieved in India with excellent efforts. India’s second VNR was presented at the HLPF in 2020 by NITI Aayog.

A National Indicator Framework (NIF) for the SDGs has been released by India’s Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), which contextualises the UN’s Global Indicator Framework to reflect India’s particular development trajectory.

At least 23 States and Union Territories have created vision documents based on the SDGs, according to an NITI Aayog report.

Nearly all of them have started taking action to localise the SDGs. Since the SDGs were first being localised, it has taken some time for India to conduct its first voluntary local review at the municipal level.


VLR (Voluntary Local Review) in Bhopal:


The VLR is a subnational assessment of the SDGs’ local implementation’s progress and difficulties.

It is a bottom-up, inclusive approach that includes a range of stakeholders, including members of civil society, business, academia, and the general public.

It strives to improve local actors’ accountability, transparency, and learning while also informing and influencing national and international policies.

The Bhopal Municipal Corporation, UN-Habitat, and a group of over 23 local stakeholders worked together to create the VLR in order to measurably show the city’s ambitions for a sustainable and inclusive urban transformation.

In addition to qualitative mapping of 56 development initiatives, it used quantitative and qualitative methodologies to the examination of the SDGs.

It identified critical issues with urban governance, climatic resilience, social inclusion, economic development, and innovation as well as potential for Bhopal to meet the SDGs.

Along with an Agenda for Action: Sustainable Urban Transformation, it was introduced by the chief minister of Madhya Pradesh at Bhopal.

According to the Agenda for Action, Bhopal will be a smart, environmentally friendly, and livable city by 2030.

Additionally, it suggests specific activities and measures to fill up the gaps and deal with the objectives mentioned in the VLR.


The value of VLR:

The engagement of local urban stakeholders is essential for achieving goals because cities are the most significant stakeholders in Agenda 2030.

A VLR is a tool to show how local initiatives are paving the road for fair and lasting changes for people and assembling a team of allies for this goal.

Although it is ideal for a city’s VLR to be in line with the State-level action plan and the national VNR, the process gives cities a lot of freedom to tell their stories in the frameworks of their choosing.

The 17 SDGs’ global targets are converted into regional indicators at the country level.

According to their importance and logistical convenience, cities can decide which individual SDGs to examine in depth. The national indicators under the applicable SDGs may be modified and further localised as a result to reflect the conditions in the cities.





It is an incredible chance for Indian cities to put their work front and centre on a global stage while utilising their local language and framework to tell their tales. To promote urban innovations and international collaborations coming out of India, other Indian towns can take Bhopal’s lead.










#India #World #Daily #The_Hindu_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIAS

The Indian Express Editorial Analysis




The World Meteorological Organisation stated on May 17 that for the first time ever, global temperatures are now more likely than not to break 1.5°C (2.7°F) of warming within the next five years. However, it did not follow that the world will reach the 1.5°C above preindustrial levels long-term warming threshold outlined in the 2015 Paris Agreement.

Global Warming Status:

The annual mean temperature in 2016 was 1.28 degrees Celsius higher than pre-industrial times (the average of the 1850–1900 era), making it the warmest year ever.

The year 2022 was the fifth warmest year on record since 2021, 1.15 degrees Celsius warmer than the pre-industrial normal.

The past ten years were the warmest in Indian history.

In the past 100 years, the sea level has risen 4 to 8 inches, and in the following 100 years, it will increase another 4 to 36 inches.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that in order to keep global warming to 1.5°C (2.7°F), greenhouse gas emissions must peak before 2025 at the latest and then be reduced by 43% by 2030;

In 2020, the average global per-person GHG emissions were 6.3 tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e). At 2.4 tCO2e, India continues to be considerably below the global average.

According to IPCC, keeping CO2 emissions within a 580 GtCO2 remaining carbon budget means that carbon neutrality will be reached in around 30 years, and 20 years with a 420 GtCO2 remaining carbon budget.

Potential repercussions of going above the 1.5 degree Paris Agreement target:

Impacts in the Short Term:

Extreme Events: Modifications to the pattern of rainfall

For instance, the 2018 Kerala floods and the 2015 Chennai floods

Last year, the Indian monsoon began early and ended earlier than usual.

In June, there were floods in Northeast India, followed by a dry spell.

More than 30 million people were affected by the floods in Pakistan, which killed 1500 lives.

In Europe, heat waves caused record-breaking temperatures, which reduced river flows and caused draughts.

America’s August was the warmest on record.

In Australia and the US, forest fires were raging.

Deadly diseases were caused by global warming:

ANTHRAX: In 2016, the first anthrax outbreak since 1941 was brought on by a reindeer carcass that had been frozen for 75 years. In Siberia, the outbreak infected 13 people and claimed the lives of around 2,000 reindeer.

ZIKA: The quicker they mature from eggs to adults and the quicker viruses can incubate, the warmer the environment.

Previously exclusive to the tropics, diseases are now spreading far beyond the equator to the United States and other countries.

ZOMBIE DISEASES: After lying dormant for thousands of years, Neanderthal viruses, smallpox, or other ancient diseases, could once again be released into the environment.

TICK-BORNE DISEASE: Ticks are another disease carrier, similar to mosquitoes, and as the climate changes and summers get longer and hotter, they’ll probably relocate to new areas and become more active. The prevalence of the tick-borne illness babesiosis has been rising in the US.

DEADLY CHOLERA: Because the bacterial illness, which causes severe diarrhoea and dehydration, is drawn to warm weather and warm water, outbreaks may become more frequent as a result of climate change.

Impact on food security: Irrigation, insolation, and insect prevalence will be affected by climate change brought on by global warming.

The variability of agricultural productivity will probably grow with the frequency of drought, flood, storm, and cyclones.

While crops in lower latitudes will suffer from mild warming (an increase of 1 to 3°C in mean temperature), crop yields in temperate regions may benefit.

Impacts in the Long and Medium Term:

Sea Level Rise: Glacier and ice cap melting, as well as thermal sea expansion, all contribute to rising sea levels.

The world’s productive coastal and delta regions will be inundated to a degree of almost one third.

Land nearby will deteriorate as a result of saline water incursions.

Such locations’ groundwater will no longer function.

Coastal cities with a high population density will be flooded by the sea.

The Carteret Islands, which are in the Pacific Ocean northeast of Papua New Guinea, and the Tuvalu Islands, which are in the South Pacific around 1000 km north of Fiji, are two of the islands that are affected. Islands like these have the greatest influence.

Source of Carbon: As a result of climate change, permafrost melts, releasing carbon as carbon dioxide and methane, much like the tundra.

It suggests that the effects of global warming are amplified.

Loss of Biodiversity: Species extinction caused by loss of terrestrial habitat, loss of planktons, and coral bleaching events in marine areas

Actions taken on a global scale:

A historic environmental agreement, the Paris Agreement (also known as the Conference of Parties 21 or COP 21), was adopted in 2015 to address climate change and its detrimental effects.

It took the place of the former climate change pact known as the Kyoto Protocol.

In order to keep the rise in global temperatures this century well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels and to keep it to 1.5°C by 2100, it intends to cut global GHG emissions.

More than 180 nations had already sent in their intentions to reduce their carbon emissions, known as INDCs, prior to the start of the summit.

The INDCs were acknowledged by the agreement, but they are not enforceable.

A system called REDD+—Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation—was created by UNFCCC Parties.

In order to provide incentives for developing countries to cut emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon pathways, it sets a financial value for the carbon contained in forests.

For activities based on results, the developing countries will be compensated.

ISA, the International Solar Alliance

There are 123 signatory nations to this alliance, the majority of which are subtropical nations that are entirely or partially located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

The alliance’s main goal is to promote efficient solar energy use in order to lessen reliance on fossil fuels.

In a speech at Wembley Stadium (London, HA9 0WS, United Kingdom) in November 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi first put up this plan. He referred to sun-drenched nations as Suryaputra (“Sons of the Sun”) in that speech.

The alliance is an intergovernmental group based on treaties. With the exception of voting rights, nations outside the Tropics are welcome to join the alliance and take use of all its benefits.

Actions taken by India:

National Climate Change Action Plan:

FAME Scheme for E-mobility: In an effort to increase the country’s sales of environmentally friendly automobiles, the Union Government established the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric automobiles (FAME) – India Scheme in April 2015. The National Mission for Electric Mobility includes it.

Smart Cities Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT).

Five crore individuals who live below the poverty line receive LPG connections through the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana programme. The connections are provided in the names of women beneficiaries in an effort to lessen their reliance on traditional fuels like cow dung and fossil fuels for cooking, which in turn will lessen air pollution.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced the UJALA programme in January 2015 with the goal of replacing 77 crore incandescent lamps with LED bulbs. Utilising LED bulbs will not only lower electricity costs but also contribute to environmental sustainability.

#India #World #Daily #The_Indian_Express_Editorial_Analysis #IAS #UPSC #Stact_PSC #Prelims #Mains #GeoIA

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