Mains Q & A 27 January 2023

Mains Q & A 27 January 2023

Q1. What does the term “pleasure” signify in the context of government services? Does the most recent modification, which prolonged the terms of some department heads, make the idea even stronger? critically evaluate (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS II Government Policies

Model Answer:


India’s doctrine of pleasure is a gift from the English. This theory holds that the President of India, who serves as the Union’s Executive Head, has the same power to oust a civil servant at any time as the Crown does in England.

The doctrine is stated in Article 310 of the Indian Constitution. According to it, subject to any limitations set by the Constitution, civil officials employed by the Union serve at the discretion of the President, and those employed by States serve at the pleasure of the Governor of those States. Constitutional restrictions may limit the Doctrine of Pleasure’s applicability.



The Center enacted two ordinances to change the Fundamental Rules of 1922 and to increase the tenure of the CBI and Enforcement Directorate Directors from two to five years.

The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act is changed to lengthen the CBI Director’s term.

The Central Vigilance Commission Act of 2003 is amended to lengthen the ED’s term.

Problems with the change:

The announcement will compromise the independence of the two organisations.

It violates the spirit of the Vineet Narain v. Union of India ruling from the Supreme Court from 1997, which mandated that the terms of the CBI and ED directors should be at least two years.

Longer terms and extension leads were not prohibited, and offering an annual extension lead can encourage staff to do their jobs with loyalty to the person in charge.

Because an ordinance was used to make the changes, it is unclear whether the government wants to keep S.K.Mishra as the present Director of Enforcement.

There is an implicit addition for an officer appointed to one of the protected posts if the decision is made with fewer than two years to go before retirement.

Attitude toward the judiciary:

It should be made clear that tenure extensions for officials who have reached the retirement age may only be granted in rare and extraordinary circumstances.


Notably, the notification emphasises that this extension is subject to Central government discretion and will only be approved if it is determined to be necessary for the general welfare.

Q2. Despite recent improvements in bilateral relations, there is still a lack of strategic alignment between Turkey and India on a number of fronts, particularly in the wake of pan-Turkism. Analyse. (250 words)

Paper & Topic: GS II International Relations

Model Answer:


The movement to unite Turkic people in Russia gained traction in the middle of the 19th century, which is when the idea of pan-Turkism first emerged. “Where there are Turks, there is Turkey” is one of the catchphrases of pan-Turkism.



India and Turkey have long-standing bilateral relationships.

The nature of that long-standing friendship, though, is deteriorating.

Whatever shared history and civilisation is eroding so quickly that both are now publicly trading diplomatic barbs in front of the world in full view of the public.

Their heightened hostilities are probably going to affect their separate neighbourhoods.

Turkey-India relations:

India and Turkey have a long history together. The relationship stretches back to 1481–1482, when the Ottoman Sultans and the Muslim subcontinental kings had their first conversation on a diplomatic mission.

Jawaharlal Nehru’s 1951 signing of a friendship pact with Turkey highlighted India’s aspirations to forge a strong alliance in the post-colonial age.

The two nations’ different Cold War geopolitical alignments prevented them from efficiently developing their relationship.

Rajiv Gandhi and Atal Bihari Vajpayee, two powerful prime leaders, attempted but failed to break the impasse in relations between India and Turkey.

Current Concerns:

In order to mediate between India and Pakistan, Turkey supports a “multilateral dialogue” on the Kashmir issue. so contradicting India’s assertion that Kashmir is a bilateral issue.

The anti-India stance on Kashmir taken by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation is one that Turkey endorses.

The Turkish position has not changed over Pakistan’s admittance to the Nuclear Suppliers Group alongside India’s.

Turkey concurs with India’s demand for a permanent seat on the Security Council. Turkey, however, is also a part of the Uniting for Consensus group, which is opposed to the extension of the Security Council’s permanent membership. Pakistan is one of these nations.

The Turkish government wants to gain access to India’s Muslim community and utilise the Indian Muslim community as a tool for Pakistan to exert pressure on India.

Moving ahead:

The development of trade and economic ties should be prioritised.

Since Europe does not welcome Turkey, Turkey needs new markets.

Collaboration between the two countries is also being found in industries like tourism, renewable energy, infrastructure development, and construction.

To forge a vibrant partnership, the areas of collaboration can be investigated and the “Pakistan factor” must be set aside.


Turkey will continue to play a major role in Eurasia as a great civilizational state long after Erdogan is gone. Over the years, independent India has sought to establish honourable ties with Turkey. However, a tough stance in Delhi today can create fresh opportunities with Ankara and in Turkey’s Eurasian fringe.

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